Who invented basketball?

Who invented basketball?


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Basketball is the only major American sport with a clearly identifiable inventor. James Naismith wrote the sport’s original 13 rules as part of a December 1891 class assignment at a Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) training school in Springfield, Massachusetts. Born and educated in Canada, Naismith came south to pursue his interests of physical education and Christian ministry. Naismith expanded on an assignment to create a game that could be played in YMCA gyms during the winter.

The first games featured nine players a side, attempting to toss a soccer ball into peach baskets nailed to the balconies at the ends of a gymnasium (when a basket was made, the game paused while a man with a ladder retrieved the ball). After its first public match in 1892, Naismith’s game spread quickly through the global network of YMCAs. The first intercollegiate match, between the Minnesota School of Agriculture and Hamline College, was played in 1895. The earliest women’s match, in which Stanford beat U.C. Berkeley, took place a year later. Basketball’s first professional league was founded in 1898, seven years before nets finally replaced the sport’s original peach baskets.

James Naismith devoted little effort to shaping the evolution of the game he invented, although he spent a decade as the University of Kansas’s founding basketball coach, losing more games than he won. Today the sport’s leading historic organization, the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in Springfield, Mass., stands not far from where the first peach baskets were nailed up.


James Naismith and the Invention of Basketball

In December 1891, college teacher James Naismith had a problem. His students, forced indoors because of winter, had become rowdy. They had a lot of energy, but no way to burn it off. It was too cold to play football and baseball, and too dangerous to play those sports in the gym.

The school asked Naismith to invent a new indoor sport. Naismith remembered a rock-tossing game he played as a child. How about a game where players threw a ball at a target? The team that tossed the most balls into the target would win.

Naismith called his new game “basket ball” and wrote up 13 rules. Two peach baskets and a soccer ball were the equipment. Naismith put the baskets at each end of the gym, nailed 10 feet above the floor. The teams each had nine players. Naismith threw the ball in the air for the first tipoff. On December 21, 1891, the game of basketball was born in Springfield, Massachusetts.

The new sport quickly grew in popularity. Naismith’s students went on to become teachers and coaches, spreading the game. Teams sprung up at high schools and colleges. Boys and girls across the nation began playing basketball.

Rules changes made the game more fun. Dribbling was allowed. Backboards were added to make scoring easier. The peach basket was replaced with a net that allowed the ball to go through, speeding up play. A new ball was introduced, one that was easier to dribble and shoot.

Fans flocked to see this exciting new sport. Soon professional leagues were formed. In the 1920s, pro teams such as the Original Celtics and the Harlem Rens drew huge crowds on nationwide tours. The game spread to every corner of the world.

Basketball became an Olympic sport in 1936. For the first Olympic basketball game, Naismith tossed the ball for the tipoff. After the championship game, he presented the medals to the players. The game James Naismith invented as a winter “distraction” had turned into a global sport.


Basketball History

A number of U.S. colleges adopted the game between about 1893 and 1895. In 1934 the first college games were staged in New York City's Madison Square Garden, and college basketball began to attract heightened interest. By the 1950s basketball had become a major college sport, thus paving the way for a growth of interest in professional basketball.

The first pro league, the National Basketball League, was formed in 1898 to protect players from exploitation and to promote a less rough game. This league only lasted five years before disbanding its demise spawned a number of loosely organized leagues throughout the northeastern United States. One of the first and greatest pro teams was the Original Celtics, organized about 1915 in New York City. They played as many as 150 games a season and dominated basketball until 1936. The Harlem Globetrotters, founded in 1927, a notable exhibition team, specializes in amusing court antics and expert ball handling.

In 1949 two subsequent professional leagues, the National Basketball League (formed in 1937) and the Basketball Association of America (1946) merged to create the National Basketball Association (NBA). The Boston Celtics, led by their center Bill Russell, dominated the NBA from the late 1950s through the 1960s. By the 1960s, pro teams from coast to coast played before crowds of many millions annually. Wilt Chamberlain, a center for the Los Angeles Lakers, was another leading player during the era, and his battles with Russell were eagerly anticipated. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, also a center, came to prominence during the 1970s. Jabbar perfected his famed "sky hook" shot while playing for the Los Angeles Lakers and dominated the opposition.

The NBA suffered a drop in popularity during the late 1970s, but was resuscitated, principally through the growing popularity of its most prominent players. Larry Bird of the Boston Celtics, and Magic Johnson of the Los Angeles Lakers are credited with injecting excitement into the league in the 1980s through their superior skills and decade-long rivalry. During the late 1980s Michael Jordan of the Chicago Bulls rose to stardom and helped the Bulls dominate the NBA during the early 1990s. A new generation of basketball stars, including Shaquille O'Neal of the Orlando Magic and Larry Johnson of the Charlotte Hornets, have sustained the NBA's growth in popularity.

In 1959 a Basketball Hall of Fame was founded in Springfield, Massachusetts. Its rosters include the names of great players, coaches, referees, and people who have contributed significantly to the development of the game. The formation of both the National Basketball League, and the Basketball Association of America created a strong attraction nationwide, to Canada and other places around the world. The game of basketball had become a worldwide phenomenon in the matter of a few years. The development and growth in the NBA since the year 2000 has meant anything from isotonic drink sponsors, trainer brands, hot dog companies and online casino brands all wanted to grab a slice of the NBA exposure. This resulted in an increased amount of coverage towards the game, meaning sponsorship and endorsement deals came flooding through from many avenues.


James Naismith, The Person Who Invented Basketball

The instructor of this class was James Naismith, a 31-year-old graduate student. After graduating from Presbyterian College in Montreal with a theology degree, Naismith embraced his love of athletics and headed to Springfield to study physical education—at that time, a relatively new and unknown academic discipline—under Luther Halsey Gulick, superintendent of physical education at the College and today renowned as the father of physical education and recreation in the United States.

As Naismith, a second-year graduate student who had been named to the teaching faculty, looked at his class, his mind flashed to the summer session of 1891, when Gulick introduced a new course in the psychology of play. In class discussions, Gulick had stressed the need for a new indoor game, one “that would be interesting, easy to learn, and easy to play in the winter and by artificial light.” No one in the class had followed up on Gulick’s challenge to invent such a game. But now, faced with the end of the fall sports season and students dreading the mandatory and dull required gymnasium work, Naismith had a new motivation.

Two instructors had already tried and failed to devise activities that would interest the young men. The faculty had met to discuss what was becoming a persistent problem with the class’s unbridled energy and disinterest in required work.

During the meeting, Naismith later wrote that he had expressed his opinion that “the trouble is not with the men, but with the system that we are using.” He felt that the kind of work needed to motivate and inspire the young men he faced “should be of a recreative nature, something that would appeal to their play instincts.”

Before the end of the faculty meeting, Gulick placed the problem squarely in Naismith’s lap.

“Naismith,” he said. “I want you to take that class and see what you can do with it.”

So Naismith went to work. His charge was to create a game that was easy to assimilate, yet complex enough to be interesting. It had to be playable indoors or on any kind of ground, and by a large number of players all at once. It should provide plenty of exercise, yet without the roughness of football, soccer, or rugby since those would threaten bruises and broken bones if played in a confined space.

Much time and thought went into this new creation. It became an adaptation of many games of its time, including American rugby (passing), English rugby (the jump ball), lacrosse (use of a goal), soccer (the shape and size of the ball), and something called duck on a rock, a game Naismith had played with his childhood friends in Bennie’s Corners, Ontario. Duck on a rock used a ball and a goal that could not be rushed. The goal could not be slammed through, thus necessitating “a goal with a horizontal opening high enough so that the ball would have to be tossed into it, rather than being thrown.”

Naismith approached the school janitor, hoping he could find two, 18-inch square boxes to use as goals. The janitor came back with two peach baskets instead. Naismith then nailed them to the lower rail of the gymnasium balcony, one at each end. The height of that lower balcony rail happened to be ten feet. A man was stationed at each end of the balcony to pick the ball from the basket and put it back into play. It wasn’t until a few years later that the bottoms of those peach baskets were cut to let the ball fall loose.

Naismith then drew up the 13 original rules, which described, among other facets, the method of moving the ball and what constituted a foul. A referee was appointed. The game would be divided into two, 15-minute halves with a five-minute resting period in between. Naismith’s secretary typed up the rules and tacked them on the bulletin board. A short time later, the gym class met, and the teams were chosen with three centers, three forwards, and three guards per side. Two of the centers met at mid-court, Naismith tossed the ball, and the game of “basket ball” was born.


The Invention of Basketball

In 1891 Naismith was teaching physical education as a graduate student at the YMCA International Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts. In class discussions, Luther Halsey Gulick had stressed the need for a new indoor game. He called for a game “that would be interesting, easy to learn, and easy to play in the winter and by artificial light.”

Naismith was the only one really listening while Halsey lamented about needing to come up with a new game. Dreading the end of the fall sports season and the mandatory indoor gymnasium work with his class he had the motivation to follow up on Halsey’s request.

The faculty soon met to discuss the problem of the student’s cooped up energy and their disinterest in the required gymnasium work. Naismith had expressed his opinion saying, “the trouble is not with the men, but with the system that we are using.” He wanted to come up with something new and exciting to inspire his young students. He thought the activity “should be of a recreative nature, something that would appeal to their play instincts.”

By the time the meeting was over, Halsey decided to assign this task to the innovative Naismith. “Naismith,” he said. “I want you to take that class and see what you can do with it.” Naismith started working to come up with a game that could be played indoors on any type of surface, by a good number of players all at the same time. He wanted it to provide plenty of exercises, and to require a fair amount of skill, but without the roughness of football, rugby or soccer. He felt that being in a confined space could lead to more injuries.

Naismith began working on a solution and put in a great amount of thought. He used parts of other popular games at the times such as passing and the jump ball from rugby, the use of a goal in lacrosse, and the shape of the ball in soccer. There was one game from his childhood playtime on the farm in Ontario that really influenced his ideas. It was called duck on a rock.

Duck on a rock was a medieval game in which a player would try to guard a large stone from opposing players who would try to knock it down by throwing smaller stones at it. To play it effectively, Naismith found that it was better to lob the stones rather than forcefully throw them directly at the target.

This was a key idea in the creation of basketball. Naismith wanted to create a goal or target in which the ball wasn’t slammed forcefully through but required skill and finesse to hit the target. He, therefore, wanted to have a goal with a horizontal opening high enough so that the ball would need to be tossed into it rather than being thrown.

Naismith asked the school janitor if he could find two 18 inch boxes to use for the goals. The janitor came back with two peach baskets. Naismith took the baskets and nailed them to the lower rail of the gymnasium balcony, which just happened to be 10 feet from the ground. From there Naismith was ready to start the first game.


Original rules of the game

Naismith didn’t create all of the rules at once, but continued to modify them into what are now known as the original 13 rules. Some are still part of the modern game today. Naismith’s original rules of the game sold at auction in 2010 for $4.3 million.

In the original rules: The ball could be thrown in any direction with one or both hands, never a fist. A player could not run with the ball but had to throw it from the spot where it was caught. Players were not allowed to push, trip or strike their opponents. The first infringement was considered a foul. A second foul would disqualify a player until the next goal was made. But if there was evidence that a player intended to injure an opponent, the player would be disqualified for the whole game.

Umpires served as judges for the game, made note of fouls and had the power to disqualify players. They decided when the ball was in bounds, to which side it belonged, and managed the time. Umpires decided when a goal had been made and kept track of the goals.

If a team made three consecutive fouls, the opposing team would be allowed a goal.

A goal was made when the ball was thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket and stayed there. If the ball rested on the edges, and the opponent moved the basket, it would count as a goal. When the ball went out of bounds, it was thrown into the field of play by the person first touching it. The person throwing the ball was allowed five seconds if he held it longer, the ball would go to the opponent. In case of a dispute, an umpire would throw the ball straight into the field. If any side persisted in delaying the game, the umpire would call a foul on that side.

The length of a game was two 15-minute halves, with five minutes' rest between. The team making the most goals within the allotted time was declared the winner. If a game was tied, it could be continued until another goal was made.


Dr. James Nasmith is a graduate student and instructor at Stringfield College who invented the game in Springfield, Massachusetts as part of his work with the college.

The story of how Naismith invented the game through Luther Gulick (then the college’s physical education superintendent) is a new indoor activity that can be played by college students during the winter in New England. ۔ What is often overlooked is that he created games in the philosophy of our Springfield College of Humanities – teaching students soul, mind and body to guide them in the service of others. He will later recall that it was Springfield College’s commitment to serving others that inspired him to create this great game – a game that would soon be off our campus, in New England, and around the world. I spread, which affected the lives of hundreds of people. Millions at every age.

it was the winter of 1891-1892 where basketball began. Inside a gymnasium at Springfield College (now known as the International YMCA Training School), located in Stringfield, Mass., Was a group of anxious college students. The young men had to be there. Since the end of the football season, he needed to take part in indoor activities to drain his energy. Gymnasium classes offered them activities such as marching, calisthenics and apparatus work, but they were light alternatives to the more exciting sports of football and lacrosse played in warmer climates.

Who invented the basketball?

The man who invented basketball was James Naismith, a 31-year-old graduate student. After graduating with a degree in theology from Presbyterian College, Montreal, Naeem accepted his love of athletics and turned to Springfield to study physical education, at the time, a relatively new and unknown science. Discipline – Under Luther Halsey Gulick, Superintendent of Physical Education. College and today in the United States is known as the father of physical education and entertainment.

As second-year graduate student Naismith, named after the teaching faculty, saw his class, his mind sparkled in the summer session of 1891, when Gulick introduced a new course in sports psychology . In class discussions, Gulisk stressed the need for a new indoor game, one that would be “interesting, easy to learn and easy to play in winter and with artificial light.” But now, with the end of the autumn sports season and the students afraid of the mandatory and slow-moving gymnasium work, Naismith has created a new movement.

The two teachers had already tried and failed to devise activities that would interest the young men. The faculty met to discuss what was becoming a constant problem of unbridled energy in the classroom and lack of interest in required tasks. During the meeting, Naismith later wrote that he had expressed his opinion that “the problem is not with men, but with the system we are using.” He felt that the kind of work that young people face is to encourage and motivate them.

Before the teachers’ meeting ended, Gulick took the issue to heart. “Blessings,” he said. “I want you to take this class and see what you can do with it.”

So Naismith went to work. He was accused of creating a game that was easy to create, but nonetheless intriguing. It has to be able to be played indoors or in any kind of ground and played, and by a large number of all the players at once. It should provide plenty of exercise, even without the roughness of football, soccer or rugby, as it can cause injuries and broken bones if played in a confined space.

A lot of time and thought went into this new creation. It became an adaptation of many sports of its time, including American rugby (passing), English rugby (jump ball), lacrosse (use of the goal), football (shape and size of the ball), is called duck on a rock. In Bennie’s Corners, Ontario, Naismith played a rock game with his childhood friends. On the rock, the duck used a ball and a goal that could not be rushed. This goal could not be accelerated to some extent, so the goal needed to be “a goal with a horizontal opening enough to throw the ball into it instead of throwing it.”

Naismith contacted the school janitor, hoping to find two, 18-inch square boxes to use as targets. The porter returned with two baskets of peaches. Naismith then nailed them to the bottom rail of the gymnasium balcony, at each end. The height of this lower balcony rail became ten feet. A man stood at each end of the balcony to pick up the ball from the basket and put it back in the game. It wasn’t until a few years later that the bottles of these peach baskets were cut to loosen the ball.

Naimat then developed 13 principles that set out, among other things, how to move the ball and what mess it has created. A referee was appointed. The game will be divided into two five-minute halves with a five-minute rest period. The Naismith secretary typed the rules and placed them on the bulletin board. Shortly afterwards, the gym class met, and the teams were selected with three centers, three forwards, and three guards on each side. Two of the centers met on the mid-court, Naeem threw the ball, and the game of “basketball” was born.

In what year was basketball invented?

Word of the new game of air basketball spread like wildfire. It was an instant success. A few weeks after the game was invented, students introduced the game to their own YMCA. The rules were printed in a college magazine, which was sent to the YMCA nationwide. Basketball was introduced to many foreign countries in a relatively short period of time due to the well-represented international student body of the college. High schools and colleges began introducing the new game, and by 1905 basketball was officially recognized as a permanent winter sport.

The rules have been traced, but to a large extent, the game of “basketball” has not changed much since the original list of “Thirteen Rules” of blessing was compiled on a bulletin board at Springfield College.

Where was Basketball Invented?

There is some confusion about the validity of the formal relationship between Springfield College and the YMCA, as it relates to the invention of James Naismith and basketball.

The confusion began with changes in the school’s name in its early history. Originally a school for Christian workers, the school had three other names early in its history, including “YMCA”: YMCA Training School, International YMCA Training School, and, still, , International YMCA College. The college did not formally adopt the name “Springfield College” until 1954, although it had been informally known as “Springfield College” for many years.

But by whatever name, Springfield College has always been a private and independent institution since its founding in 1885. The College has enjoyed a long and fruitful partnership with the YMCA, but the YMCA movement has never had a formal organizational relationship.

A small sign on the corner of the building where the basketball was invented has added to the confusion. The building stood on Springfield, Massachusetts, on the corner of Estate and Sherman Roads. The sign, which bears the words “Armory Hill Young Men’s Christian Association,” appears in old photos of the building circulating online. This has led some to mistakenly believe that Armory Hill YMCA owns the building, and that James Naismith was an employee of YMCA.

However, in 2010, some YMCA historical documents and documents from Springfield College were discovered. These documents conclude that the gymnasium in which Naismith invented basketball was not in a YMCA, but in a building owned by the School for Christian Workers, which began with today’s Springfield College. The building also included classrooms, hostel rooms, and a teacher and staff office for teachers. Armory Hill YMCA rented space in the building for its activities and used a small symbol to attract paying customers.


Contents

The shoes have gone by a variety of names, depending on geography and changing over the decades. The term "sneakers" is most commonly used in Northeastern United States, Central and South Florida, [5] [6] New Zealand, and parts of Canada. However, in Australian, Canadian, and Scottish English, running shoes and runners are synonymous terms used to refer to sneakers with the latter term also used in Hiberno-English. Tennis shoes is another term used in Australian, and North American English.

The British English equivalent of sneaker in its modern form is divided into two separate types - predominantly outdoor and fashionable trainers, training shoes or quality 'basketball shoes' and in contrast cheap rubber-soled, low cut and canvas-topped 'plimsolls'. In Geordie English, sneakers may also be called sandshoes, gym boots, or joggers [7] while plimsolls may be referred to as daps in Welsh English.

Several terms for sneakers exist in South Africa, including gym shoes, tennies, sports shoes, sneaks, and takkies. [8] Other names for sneakers includes rubber shoes in Philippine English, track shoes in Singapore English, canvas shoes in Nigerian English, Camboo in Ghana English meaning Camp boot and sportex in Greece.

Plimsolls (British English) are "low-tech" athletic shoes and are also called "sneakers" in American English. The word "sneaker" is often attributed to American Henry Nelson McKinney, who was an advertising agent for N. W. Ayer & Son. In 1917, he used the term because the rubber sole made the shoe's wearer stealthy. The word was already in use at least as early as 1887, when the Boston Journal made reference to "sneakers" as "the name boys give to tennis shoes." The name "sneakers" originally referred to how quiet the rubber soles were on the ground, in contrast to noisy standard hard leather sole dress shoes. Someone wearing sneakers could "sneak up", while someone wearing standards could not. [9]

Earlier, the name "sneaks" had been used by prison inmates to refer to warders because of the rubber-soled shoes they wore. [10]

These shoes acquired the nickname 'plimsoll' in the 1870s, derived according to Nicholette Jones' book The Plimsoll Sensation, from the coloured horizontal band joining the upper to the sole, which resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship's hull. Alternatively, just like the Plimsoll line on a ship, if water got above the line of the rubber sole, the wearer would get wet. [11]

Plimsolls were widely worn by vacationers and also began to be worn by sportsmen on the tennis and croquet courts for their comfort. Special soles with engraved patterns to increase the surface grip of the shoe were developed, and these were ordered in bulk for the use of the British Army. Athletic shoes were increasingly used for leisure and outdoor activities at the turn of the 20th century - plimsolls were even found with the ill-fated Scott Antarctic expedition of 1911. Plimsolls were commonly worn by pupils in schools' physical education lessons in the UK from the 1950s until the early 1970s. [ citation needed ]

British company J.W. Foster and Sons designed and produced the first shoes designed for running in 1895 the shoes were spiked to allow for greater traction and speed. The company sold its high-quality handmade running shoes to athletes around the world, eventually receiving a contract for the manufacture of running shoes for the British team in the 1924 Summer Olympics. Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell won the 100 m and 400 m events, kitted out with Foster's running gear. [12]

This style of footwear also became prominent in America at the turn of the 20th century, where they were called 'sneakers'. In 1892, the U.S. Rubber Company introduced the first rubber-soled shoes in the country, sparking a surge in demand and production. The first basketball shoes were designed by Spalding as early as 1907. [ citation needed ] The market for sneakers grew after World War I, when sports and athletics increasingly became a way to demonstrate moral fiber and patriotism. The U.S. market for sneakers grew steadily as young boys lined up to buy sneakers endorsed by football player Jim Thorpe and Converse All Stars endorsed by basketball player Chuck Taylor.

During the interwar period, athletic shoes began to be marketed for different sports, and differentiated designs were made available for men. Athletic shoes were used by competing athletes at the Olympics, helping to popularise athletic shoes among the general public. In 1936, a French brand, Spring Court, [13] marketed the first canvas tennis shoe featuring signature eight ventilation channels on a vulcanised natural rubber sole.

Adolf "Adi" Dassler began producing his own sports shoes in his mother's wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, after his return from World War I, and went on to establish one of the leading athletic shoe manufacturers, Adidas. [14] He also successfully marketed his shoes to athletes at the 1936 Summer Olympics, which helped cement his good reputation. Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes each year before World War II. [15] [16]

Post-War

During the 1950s, leisure opportunities greatly expanded, and children and adolescents began to wear sneakers as school dress codes relaxed. Sneaker sales rose so high, they began to adversely affect the sales of conventional leather shoes, leading to a fierce advertising war for market share in the late '50s. In the 1970s, jogging for exercise became increasingly popular, and trainers designed specifically for comfort while jogging sold well. Companies also started to target some of their products at the casual fashion market. Soon, shoes were available for football, jogging, basketball, running, etc. Many sports had their relevant shoe, made possible by podiatrist development of athletic shoe technology.

During the 1990s, shoe companies perfected their fashion and marketing skills. Sports endorsements with famous athletes grew larger, and marketing budgets went through the roof. Sneakers became a fashion statement and were marketed as a definition of identity and personality rather than simply athletic aids. [17]

From 1970 (five models), to 1998 (285 models), to 2012 (3,371), the number of sport shoe models in the U.S. has grown exponentially. [18]

The term 'athletic shoes' is typically used for shoes utilized for jogging or road running and indoor sports such as basketball, but tends to exclude shoes for sports played on grass such as association football and rugby football, which are generally known in North America as "cleats" and in British English as "boots" or "studs".

Attributes of an athletic shoe include a flexible sole, appropriate tread for the function, and ability to absorb impact. As the industry and designs have expanded, the term "athletic shoes" is based more on the design of the bottom of the shoe than the aesthetics of the top of the shoe. Today's designs include sandals, Mary Janes, and even elevated styles suitable for running, dancing, and jumping.

The shoes themselves are made of flexible compounds, typically featuring a sole made of dense rubber. While the original design was basic, manufacturers have since tailored athletic shoes for their specific purposes. An example of this is the spiked shoe developed for track running. Some of these shoes are made up to unusually large sizes for athletes with large feet.

Running shoes

Running shoes come in a range of shapes suited to different running styles/abilities. Generally, they are divided by running style: the majority are for heel-toe joggers/runners which are further subdivided into 'neutral', 'overpronation' and 'underpronation'. [19] [20] These are constructed with a complex structure of "rubber" with plastic/metal stiffeners to restrict foot movement. More advanced runners tend to wear flatter and flexible shoes, which allow them to run more quickly with greater comfort.

According to the NPD Group, one in four pairs of running shoes that were sold in the United States in 2016 were bought from an online retailer. [21]


The Invention of "Basket Ball" (Basketball)

"Typescript document signed ("James Naismith 6-28-31"), 2 pages (10 x 8 in. 254 x 203 mm), [Springfield, Massachusetts, December 1891], being the original rules for the game of Basketball as typed up the very morning that Naismith introduced his new sport to the world, 46 lines enumerating 13 rules, titled at the top of the first page in Naismith's hand "Basket Ball," with one three-word autograph emendation, and endorsed by him at the bottom of the second page "First draft of Basket Ball rules. Hung in the gym that the boys might learn the rules&mdashDecr 1891" first page very lightly soiled, both pages a tiny bit faded, a few stains from careless transparent tape and other adhesive repairs attempted by Naismith himself, both sheets mounted on slightly larger pieces of mat board, again by Naismith, in anticipation of the rules being framed (which he never did)." (Sotheby's).

In December 1891 Canadian sports coach, physician, and innovator, James Naismith, invented basketball as an indoor sport to be played in winter by writing thirteen rules for the new sport and posting these rules in the Springfield, Massachusetts YMCA gym. As far as I know, this is the only major sport in which the invention can be traced to a specific document.

"The first game of "Basket Ball" was played in December 1891. In a handwritten report, Naismith described the circumstances of the inaugural match in contrast to modern basketball, the players played nine versus nine, handled a soccer ball, not a basketball, and instead of shooting at two hoops, the goals were a pair of peach baskets: 'When Mr. Stubbins brot [sic] up the peach baskets to the gym I secured them on the inside of the railing of the gallery. This was about 10 feet from the floor, one at each end of the gymnasium. I then put the 13 rules on the bulletin board just behind the instructor's platform, secured a soccer ball and awaited the arrival of the class. The class did not show much enthusiasm but followed my lead. . . I then explained what they had to do to make goals, tossed the ball up between the two center men & tried to keep them somewhat near the rules. Most of the fouls were called for running with the ball, though tackling the man with the ball was not uncommon.' In contrast to modern basketball, the original rules did not include what is known today as the dribble. Since the ball could only be moved up the court via a pass early players tossed the ball over their heads as they ran up court. Also, following each 'goal' a jump ball was taken in the middle of the court. Both practices are obsolete in the rules of modern basketball

"By 1892, basketball had grown so popular on campus that Dennis Horkenbach (editor-in-chief of The Triangle, the Springfield college newspaper) featured it in an article called 'A New Game', and there were calls to call this new game 'Naismith Ball', but Naismith refused. By 1893, basketball was introduced internationally by the YMCA movement. From Springfield, Naismith went to Denver where he acquired a medical degree and in 1898 he joined the University of Kansas faculty at Lawrence, Kansas" (Wikipedia article on James Naismith, accessed 12-11-2010).


The very first match of basketball

The first match of any sport is the most exciting and unforgettable day of the history of that sport. If we go through the history, the first match of basketball was taken place on 21 st December 1891 in the Armory street court: 9 versus 9 under the instruction of Dr. James Naismith and the equipment were a soccer ball and two peach baskets only no Spalding ball or metal hoop. Dr. James Naismith had 18 students in his physical education class so he decided to divide them into two teams.


Timeline of Basketball

The first match of the Basketball game – December 21, 1891

On December 21, 1891, the first basketball match was played between two teams. Each team consisted of 9 players. These 18 players were students of Mr. James Naismith’s class. Mr. James introduced 13 rules and 5 unique ideas to play the basketball match. With the passage of time, in the 20th century, the basketball game became popular in America as well as in European countries.

The role of YMCA and U.S. Army for basketball

Young Men’s Christian Association (founded by Sir George Williams in London) played a key role in the development of basketball. They started to play basketball matches on the national and international levels. They played the basketball game throughout the United States, Canada, and around the world.

“World War 1” began in 1914. The War had been originated in Europe. The U.S. Army spread all around the world and they played basketball where they were. In this way, every country was introduced by a basketball game.

Professional Leagues, Teams, and Organizations of Basketball

The very first professional league of basketball was played in 1898. In this league, there were six teams and the name of the league was “National Basketball League.” The first college league between two teams played on 9 February 1895. There were 9 players on every team. The intercollegiate matches were played between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa. This was the first match that played with modern rules.

“FIBA” International Games

International Basketball Federation was founded on 18 June 1932. There were eight countries in this federation. The Headquater of FIBA made in Switzerland’s city Geneva. The first International title was won by U.S.A national team. FIBA’s first World Championship was played in Argentina in the year 1950.

National Basketball Association (NBA)

National Basketball Association is the most prominent basketball association of the U.S.A Basketball Leagues. NBA was founded in 1949 and to the present day it has been leading the basketball leagues on national and international levels. The NBA players, salaries, and level of competition is outstanding in the world.


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