George Eastman YAG-39 - History

George Eastman YAG-39 - History

George Eastman

George Eastman, born in Waterville, N.Y., 12 July 1854, was educated at the University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. An avid photographer, he stimulated photography as a popular hobby by developing and mass-producing his photographic inventions. He invented a process for coating dry plates and began their manufacture at Rochester in 1880. Four years later he developed the first flexible roll film, in 1888 he invented and marketed the "Kodak," the first portable, compact camera, and the following year he perfected a transparent film for amateur use. The George Eastman Co, introduced a daylight-loading film in 1891. Reorganized into the Eastman Kodak Co in 1893, his firm became one of the first in the country to produce a standardized product on a large scale. Eastman established excellent research and chemical laboratories', and under his direction his firm later pioneered the development of many allied photographic products and processes, including amateur motion-picture cameras and a process for color photography. Building Eastman Kodak Co. into a world wide organization, Eastman amsassed a great fortune, well over $75 million of which he donated for the advancement of education. His philanthropies established and endowed the Eastman School of Music; and he gave millions of dollars to the University of Rochester, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Tuskegee and Hampton Institutes and to various scientific and medical institutions in the United States and Europe. George Eastman died in Rochester, N.Y., 14 March 1932.

(YAG-39: dp. 3,890 (It.); 1. 442'; b. 57'; dr. 30'; s. 10 k.;
cpl 100; a. none; T. EC2-S-C1 )

George Eastman, a "Liberty~type" cargo ship, was laid down under Maritime Commission contract 24 March 1943 by Permanente Metals Corp., Yard 2, Richmond, Calif.; launched 20 April 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Ann Troutman, and delivered under charter from WSA to Pacific Atlantic Steamship Co., Vancouver, Wash., 5 May 1943.

She operated as n merchant cargo carrier until placed in the National Defense Reserve Fleet in Suisun Bay, Calif., 24 June 1948. Later taken out of reserve, she was chartered to Pacific Far East Line, Inc., San Francisco, 24 December 1951 and operated as a merchantman in the Far East during the Korean War. On 2 June 1952 she was transferred by the Maritime Administration to the custody of the Navy at Suisun Bay.

Acquired by the Navy 2 April 1953, she was designated YAG-39 the following month. She was then fitted out with numerous scientific instruments, including nuclear detection and measurement devices, which enabled her to conduct contamination and fallout measurement tests after nuclear explosions. Manned by an experimental crew in a specially protected control cubicle, she also was fitted with electronic remote-control gear that enabled her to serve as a robot ship.

Following extensive conversion, YA~S9 was placed in service at San Francisco 20 October 1953, Lt. Comdr. Hugh W. Anglin in command. Assigned to Joint Task Force 7, she steamed to Eniwetok, Marshall Islands, where from March through May 1954 she participated in atomic tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds. During Operation Castle," a nuclear underwater test, she gathered fallout data and carried out experimental ship protection studies. After returning to San Francisco, she was placed out of service from June until February 1955.

In May, YAG 59 again served with Joint Task Force 7 during Operation "Wigwam," the deep underwater nuclear test carried out in the Eastern Pacific. During the next 10 months she operated between the West Coast and Hawaii, and conducted various experimental tests before returning to Eniwetok 8 April 1956 to participate in additional nuclear tests. From 21 May to 23 July she took part in four nuclear-proving tests and gathered scientific data to advance our knowledge of the atom and the effects of nuclear fission.

Departing Eniwetok 28 July, YAG 39 steamed via Pearl Harbor to San Francisco where she arrived 16 August. After receiving additional scientific equipment, she departed San Francisco 6 February 1957 to resume experimental operations off the California coast. During the next few months she steamed with YAG-40 while testing advanced weapons and ship protection systems. Towed to San Diego 21 October for inactivation, she was placed out of service 1 November and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet at San Diego.

Reactivated in 1962, YAG-89 commissioned at San Francisco 20 October, Lt. William G. Sternberg in command. With her sister ship, YAG-40, she departed San Francisco 15 November for Pearl Harbor, where she arrived 24 November for underway training. Assigned to Service Squadron 5, she operated off Hawaii and carried out extensive experimental tests in the fields of ship protection systems and scientific warfare analysis. On 3 July 1963 she was assigned her former merchant name, George Eastman.

Since 1963, George Eastman has operated as a research ship between the Hawaiian sea frontier and the equatorial area of the mid-Pacific, providing valuable support for various scientific research and defense proJects of the Department of Defense. She sailed to the West Coast in April 1966 for a 3-month overhaul; and, following her return to Pearl Harbor 18 August, she resumed research cruises in Hawaiian waters. Her support activities continued through 1966 into 1967.


George Eastman YAG-39 - History

Posted on 08/13/2002 7:06:25 AM PDT by wakingtime

Toxic Tugs - Public Poisons by J.B. Stone - 04/17/02

What do Maryland, Utah, Alaska, Hawaii, Johnston Atoll, and the Marshall Islands have in common?

BioChemical warfare tests were conducted in all of them behind a blinding haze of Cold War secrecy. And hardly a word of warning was ever issued, before during, or afterward the test conductors, subjects, or citizens living in surrounding areas.

Marine jets and Army artillery sprayed "harmless simulants" and live biological and chemical agents on unsuspecting citizens for 15 years on land and sea during Operation Deseret. The randomly selected human test rats onboard ships sailing with the USS Granville Hall, YAG-40, were largely unaware.

Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard & Defense) tested the Navy's ability to defend itself from gas or particle attacks by the enemy. But there weren’t any posters hanging in recruiter’s offices inviting Sailors to be used as dehumanized ciphers in scientific "research" projects. There were bigger fish to fry.

Navy ships sailing under Army orders and accompanied by 5 specially equipped Army tugboats waged their secret war from the balmy South Pacific to the chilly waters off Newfoundland. Night and day they’d pass through poisonous clouds up to a hundred miles long spread by Marine jets. The Deseret Test Center at Fort Douglas, Utah (Dugway Proving Ground) simply tested whatever the top-secret labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland could produce. Dugway dispatched the deadly materials to be tested in areas ranging from the remote Marshall Islands to as little as 50 miles West of San Francisco.

Just last week they struck again. The Fairbanks Daily News-Miner reported a contractor had unearthed leaking drums of suspected warfare agents while preparing structures for the National Missile Defense System. Most likely leftovers from the Gerstle River Project carried out at Fort Greely, linked to Project SHAD. Crewmen from Granville Hall's sister ship the USS George Eastman, YAG-39, were there in the 60’s, conducting cold-weather atmospheric tests to discover how best to distribute Anthrax spores, deadly VX & Sarin gas, and a vile assortment of highly contagious diseases.

Lax storage practices and non-existent environmental concern followed creating huge ecological disaster areas. Rockets and artillery shells filled with terminal cocktails were fired into Utah’s clear desert air and left to rust in Alaska's wilderness. No disclosure was forthcoming regarding long-range health effects of the test "conductors" or later inhabitants. Instead, those flatly ordered into these clandestine activities were coerced to sign documents stating they would never reveal their involvement in these toxic tests.

Long before the crew autopsied the caged monkeys that died on deck from nerve gas attacks in the South Pacific, these nondescript Liberty hulls had had huge “crow’s nests” installed on their masts. YAG-39 & 40 were contaminated in nuclear blasts from Bikini Atoll to the open ocean 450 miles Southwest of San Diego. They sailed through the radioactive fallout for a decade, collecting particles. Carcinogenic materials were used to wash down the outer surfaces of the vessels after every test. Crewmen who died from blood, bone and skin cancers came to the realization too late to take any protective measures. They had their orders and that was that.

Surely you've heard of the Smithsonian Institution. But, I'd lay odds you’re unaware of the Smithsonian's Pacific Bird Project. Smithsonian contractors aboard the USNS Shearwater, accompanied by YAG-39 & 40 and the Army tugs, “collected" thousands upon thousands of migratory bird carcasses with 12 gauge shotguns fired by Navy crewmen. Over 2 million birds were banded and dusted down to see how far these "avian vectors" would transport deadly substances. Their instinctive navigational skills led to a greater than 90% accuracy for the proposed activities. Crewmen shot the boobies and gulls and gutted them on the helo deck for verification. They were safe from observation in idyllic spots like Christmas Island. Had anyone stumbled onto this chilling armada, those involved could offer little explanation. All communication between the various parties was discouraged and test results were closely guarded under the highest security measures. Now many of those present have permanently debilitating nerve, skin and respiratory conditions.

Not even Conscientious Objectors escaped. The "White Coats" of the Seventh day Adventist Church participated in 153 Army Germ warfare tests from 1954 to 1973. And, because they did not smoke, or drink alcohol or coffee, "They were a cleaner piece of paper on which to work an experiment," according to Richard O. Stenbakken, Adventist clergy armed forces supervisor.

Trained as medics at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, they were transferred to Fort Detrick, Maryland where they were expected to volunteer for at least one experiment. Open-air tests were carried out in the Utah desert using Q-Fever and other "simulants" to study Anthrax attacks. Otherwise they spent quality time in the "Eight Ball," a spherical chamber more than two stories tall at Fort Detrick. Scientists charged the chamber with bacteria and viruses where Operation White Coat test subjects wore breathing apparatus directly connected to the infected air.

It's been over 40 years since Project SHAD and the related tests began. The lid of secrecy has barely been lifted enough to allow a slender crack of light to shine on the truth. The DOD has only de-classified a handful of the 113 test series performed in Project SHAD. The VA knows there were 10,000 people to life-threatening substances, but they have declined to perform any active outreach program to notify them. This sad injustice is uncalled-for.

Why would the United States carry out such a hugely hideous plan, leaving behind hundreds of square miles of highly contaminated landscape spread across the Western Hemisphere and then just walk away from the physical and sociological devastation, leaving unsuspecting citizens to solve the problems on their own?

I don't know. I've been wondering for 30 years when and how the story will end. I was only 19 years old when I was assigned to the USS Granville S Hall in 1968. And it wasn’t my idea.


George Eastman YAG-39 - History

Posted on 02/02/2003 5:01:47 PM PST by wakingtime

Toxic Tugs - Public Poisons by J.B. Stone - 04/17/02

What do Maryland, Utah, Alaska, Hawaii, Johnston Atoll, and the Marshall Islands have in common?

BioChemical warfare tests were conducted in all of them behind a blinding haze of Cold War secrecy. And hardly a word of warning was ever issued, before during, or afterward the test conductors, subjects, or citizens living in surrounding areas.

Marine jets and Army artillery sprayed "harmless simulants" and live biological and chemical agents on unsuspecting citizens for 15 years on land and sea during Operation Deseret. The randomly selected human test rats onboard ships sailing with the USS Granville Hall, YAG-40, were largely unaware.

Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard & Defense) tested the Navy's ability to defend itself from gas or particle attacks by the enemy. But there weren’t any posters hanging in recruiter’s offices inviting Sailors to be used as dehumanized ciphers in scientific "research" projects. There were bigger fish to fry.

Navy ships sailing under Army orders and accompanied by 5 specially equipped Army tugboats waged their secret war from the balmy South Pacific to the chilly waters off Newfoundland. Night and day they’d pass through poisonous clouds up to a hundred miles long spread by Marine jets. The Deseret Test Center at Fort Douglas, Utah (Dugway Proving Ground) simply tested whatever the top-secret labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland could produce. Dugway dispatched the deadly materials to be tested in areas ranging from the remote Marshall Islands to as little as 50 miles West of San Francisco.

Just last week they struck again. The Fairbanks Daily News-Miner reported a contractor had unearthed leaking drums of suspected warfare agents while preparing structures for the National Missile Defense System. Most likely leftovers from the Gerstle River Project carried out at Fort Greely, linked to Project SHAD. Crewmen from Granville Hall's sister ship the USS George Eastman, YAG-39, were there in the 60’s, conducting cold-weather atmospheric tests to discover how best to distribute Anthrax spores, deadly VX & Sarin gas, and a vile assortment of highly contagious diseases.

Lax storage practices and non-existent environmental concern followed creating huge ecological disaster areas. Rockets and artillery shells filled with terminal cocktails were fired into Utah’s clear desert air and left to rust in Alaska's wilderness. No disclosure was forthcoming regarding long-range health effects of the test "conductors" or later inhabitants. Instead, those flatly ordered into these clandestine activities were coerced to sign documents stating they would never reveal their involvement in these toxic tests.

Long before the crew autopsied the caged monkeys that died on deck from nerve gas attacks in the South Pacific, these nondescript Liberty hulls had had huge “crow’s nests” installed on their masts. YAG-39 & 40 were contaminated in nuclear blasts from Bikini Atoll to the open ocean 450 miles Southwest of San Diego. They sailed through the radioactive fallout for a decade, collecting particles. Carcinogenic materials were used to wash down the outer surfaces of the vessels after every test. Crewmen who died from blood, bone and skin cancers came to the realization too late to take any protective measures. They had their orders and that was that.

Surely you've heard of the Smithsonian Institution. But, I'd lay odds you’re unaware of the Smithsonian's Pacific Bird Project. Smithsonian contractors aboard the USNS Shearwater, accompanied by YAG-39 & 40 and the Army tugs, “collected" thousands upon thousands of migratory bird carcasses with 12 gauge shotguns fired by Navy crewmen. Over 2 million birds were banded and dusted down to see how far these "avian vectors" would transport deadly substances. Their instinctive navigational skills led to a greater than 90% accuracy for the proposed activities. Crewmen shot the boobies and gulls and gutted them on the helo deck for verification. They were safe from observation in idyllic spots like Christmas Island. Had anyone stumbled onto this chilling armada, those involved could offer little explanation. All communication between the various parties was discouraged and test results were closely guarded under the highest security measures. Now many of those present have permanently debilitating nerve, skin and respiratory conditions.

Not even Conscientious Objectors escaped. The "White Coats" of the Seventh day Adventist Church participated in 153 Army Germ warfare tests from 1954 to 1973. And, because they did not smoke, or drink alcohol or coffee, "They were a cleaner piece of paper on which to work an experiment," according to Richard O. Stenbakken, Adventist clergy armed forces supervisor.

Trained as medics at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, they were transferred to Fort Detrick, Maryland where they were expected to volunteer for at least one experiment. Open-air tests were carried out in the Utah desert using Q-Fever and other "simulants" to study Anthrax attacks. Otherwise they spent quality time in the "Eight Ball," a spherical chamber more than two stories tall at Fort Detrick. Scientists charged the chamber with bacteria and viruses where Operation White Coat test subjects wore breathing apparatus directly connected to the infected air.

It's been over 40 years since Project SHAD and the related tests began. The lid of secrecy has barely been lifted enough to allow a slender crack of light to shine on the truth. The DOD has only de-classified a handful of the 113 test series performed in Project SHAD. The VA knows there were 10,000 people to life-threatening substances, but they have declined to perform any active outreach program to notify them. This sad injustice is uncalled-for.

Why would the United States carry out such a hugely hideous plan, leaving behind hundreds of square miles of highly contaminated landscape spread across the Western Hemisphere and then just walk away from the physical and sociological devastation, leaving unsuspecting citizens to solve the problems on their own?

I don't know. I've been wondering for 30 years when and how the story will end. I was only 19 years old when I was assigned to the USS Granville S Hall in 1968. And it wasn’t my idea.

From T.S. Elliot's "The Hollow Men"

I know LOTS of hollow men.

They sit back in Congress, And they make our laws,

They command the Armies, They give death its Jaws,

They'd feed you SHAD and crumpets, Into your gaping Maws,

Until the day they stumble forth, Proclaiming, "That's just the way it was!"


A handwritten farewell

Finally deciding to take matters into his own hands, Eastman ended his life with a single gunshot to the heart on March 14, 1932, at the age of 77.

The handwritten note above and his death certificate (shown below) are both on display at George Eastman House museum in Rochester, New York.

Cause of death appears to read: &ldquoSuicide by shooting self in heart with a revolver while temporarily insane.&rdquo

George Eastman was cremated, and his ashes buried on the grounds of Kodak Park (now known as Eastman Business Park) in Rochester, New York &mdash on the site of the empire he created.


George Eastman

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George Eastman, (born July 12, 1854, Waterville, New York, U.S.—died March 14, 1932, Rochester, New York), American entrepreneur and inventor whose introduction of the first Kodak camera helped to promote amateur photography on a large scale.

After his education in the public schools of Rochester, New York, Eastman worked briefly for an insurance company and a bank. In 1880 he perfected a process of making dry plates for photography and organized the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company for their manufacture. The first Kodak (a name he coined) camera was placed on the market in 1888. It was a simple handheld box camera containing a 100-exposure roll of film that used paper negatives. Consumers sent the entire camera back to the manufacturer for developing, printing, and reloading when the film was used up the company’s slogan was “You press the button, we do the rest.” In 1889 Eastman introduced roll film on a transparent base, which has remained the standard for film. In 1892 he reorganized the business as the Eastman Kodak Company. Eight years later he introduced the Brownie camera, which was intended for use by children and sold for one dollar. By 1927 Eastman Kodak had a virtual monopoly of the photographic industry in the United States, and it has continued to be one of the largest American companies in its field.

Eastman gave away half his fortune in 1924. His gifts, which totaled more than $75 million, went to such beneficiaries as the University of Rochester (of which the Eastman School of Music is a part) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was also one of the first business owners to introduce profit sharing as an employee incentive. Eastman took his own life at age 77, leaving a note that said, “My work is done. Why wait?” His home in Rochester, now known as George Eastman House, has become a renowned archive and museum of international photography as well as a popular tourist site.


A History of Photography

Geneviève-Elisabeth Disdéri (French, 1817–1878). Port militaire. Direction du port, 1856. Albumen silver print. George Eastman Museum, gift of Eastman Kodak Company, ex-collection Gabriel Cromer.

Anna Atkins (British, 1799–1871). Carix (America), ca. 1850. Cyanotype. George Eastman Museum, purchase with funds from the Ford Motor Company Fund and the Margaret T. Morris Foundation.

Laura Gilpin (American, 1891–1979). Shiprock from the North Rim of Mesa Verde, 1926. Platinum print. George Eastman Museum, purchase. © 1979 Amon Carter Museum of American Art

Julia Margaret Cameron (British, b. India, 1815–1879). Mrs. Herbert Duckworth, 1867. Albumen silver print. George Eastman Museum, purchase.

This rotation, curated by Rachel E. Andrews, assistant collection manager in the Department of Photography, provides an overview of the history of photography through works produced by women photographers, artists, printers, and entrepreneurs. Selections include portraits hand-colored by unidentified nineteenth-century women, a botanical specimen by Anna Atkins, the photograph by Margaret Bourke-White featured on the cover of Life magazine’s first issue, and a conceptual artwork of appropriated words and imagery by Barbara Kruger. This installation highlights women’s involvement in the production of photographic objects from the medium’s invention to the present day.

About the History of Photography Gallery

The George Eastman Museum photography collection is among the best and most comprehensive in the world. With holdings that include objects ranging in date from the announcement of the medium’s invention in 1839 to the present day, the collection represents the full history of photography. Works by renowned masters of the medium exist side-by- side with vernacular and scientific photographs. The collection also includes all applications of the medium, from artistic pursuit to commercial enterprise and from amateur pastime to documentary record, as well as all types of photographic processes, from daguerreotypes to digital prints. The museum's History of Photography Gallery is dedicated to rotating installations that demonstrate photography’s historical trajectory through photographs and cameras drawn from the collection. The selection of photographs changes approximately three times a year, continually refreshing the experience of visiting the Eastman Museum and offering regular opportunities to display the museum’s treasures.

Focus 45: Women in Photography

In her Focus 45 lecture, Rachel E. Andrews discussed ​the photographs exhibited in this installation of the History of Photography Gallery. Audio available on SoundCloud.


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Beginnings and Renewals

The Eastman School, one of the constituent colleges of the University of Rochester, was brought into being by the generosity of Rochester philanthropist and Eastman Kodak magnate George Eastman (1854-1932). A music-lover by avocation, Mr. Eastman suggested to University President Rush Rhees in 1918 that the University should have a professional school of music. To that end, Mr. Eastman bought and presented to the University the property and corporate rights of the D.K.G. Institute of Musical Art (est. 1913), operating on Prince Street. The new school was thus formed from an existing institution. In 1919, Mr. Eastman purchased the land bounded by Gibbs, Main, and Swan Streets and Barrett Alley, where the new school building would stand. Ground was broken at the beginning of 1920. By Mr. Eastman’s design, the building would house not only the School, but also an auditorium that would benefit the greater community by providing a venue for musical performance – existing for “the enrichment of community life,” in the words of Dr. Rhees. Those same words grace the Eastman Theatre façade.

The Eastman School opened its doors to a class of 104 regular course students in September 1921. The Eastman Theatre opened one year later, on September 2, 1922. In 1923-24 a five-floor annex was built on Swan Street, connected by a bridge to the Eastman Theatre. In 1925, three dormitories for women students were built on University Avenue, adjacent to the University’s College for Women. In 1927, a 10-floor annex was built on Swan Street, providing additional practice rooms and classrooms, rehearsal space for the opera department, and a gymnasium.

In 1937, the Sibley Music Library moved from its quarters on the first floor of the main building into its own new building on Swan Street, a two-level structure with an adjoining four-level stacks area. The library collections would remain there until 1989, when they were re-housed in the new Eastman Place building on Gibbs Street, directly across from the School and Theatre.

In 1991, a new Student Living Center was opened at the corner of Main and Gibbs Streets, replacing the University Avenue dormitories built nearly 70 years earlier.

The early 21 st century has seen a thorough renovation of the Eastman Theatre, and an expansion of the School with a new East Wing building which includes a large-ensemble rehearsal space, studios, an atrium with a box office and gift shop, and the new Hatch Recital Hall. The renovated Eastman Theatre re-opened in fall 2009 as Kodak Hall at Eastman Theatre the East Wing opened in December 2010 with a gala week of concerts and other events.

The School’s charter faculty (1921-22) numbered 32 instructors. Today the faculty numbers 150 members, including all full- and part-time instructors and professors emeriti.


Giving Away His Fortune

Eastman is almost as well known for his philanthropy as he is for his pioneering work in photography. In this field, as in others, he put the direction of an enthusiastic amateur to work.

He began giving to nonprofit institutions when his salary was $60 a week -- with a donation of $50 to the young and struggling Mechanics Institute of Rochester, now the Rochester Institute of Technology.

He was an admirer of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology because he had hired some of its graduates, who had become his best assistants. This admiration, after thorough study, was translated into a handsome gift to M.I.T., eventually reaching $20 million. It was given anonymously from a "Mr. Smith," and for several years the identity of the mysterious "Mr. Smith" was speculated about, even finding expression in a popular M.I.T. song.

Dental clinics were also of great interest to Eastman. He devised complete plans and financial backing for a $2.5 million dental clinic for Rochester. He then started a large-scale, remedial dental program for children. Dental clinics were also given to London, Paris, Rome, Brussels and Stockholm.

When asked why he favored dental clinics, he replied, "I get more results for my money than in any other philanthropic scheme. It is a medical fact that children can have a better chance in life with better looks, better health and more vigor if the teeth, nose, throat and mouth are taken proper care of at the crucial time of childhood."

Eastman loved music and wanted others to enjoy the beauty and pleasure of music. He established and supported the Eastman School of Music, a theatre, and a symphony orchestra. "It is fairly easy to employ skillful musicians. It is impossible to buy appreciation of music. Yet without a large body of people who get joy out of it, any attempt to develop musical resources of any city is doomed to failure," he said. So his plan had a practical formula for exposing the public to music -- with the result that the people of Rochester have for decades supported their own philharmonic orchestra.

Interest in hospitals and dental clinics had grown with Eastman's work and study of the field. He promoted and brought to fruition a program to develop a medical school and hospital at the University of Rochester, which became as nationally prominent as the university's music school. Rochester is filled with Eastman landmarks that contribute to the enrichment of community life.

His sincere concern for the education of African Americans brought gifts to the Hampton and the Tuskegee Institutes. One day in 1924, Eastman signed away $30 million to the University of Rochester, M.I.T., Hampton and Tuskegee. As he laid down the pen he said, "Now I feel better."

In explaining these large gifts, he said, "The progress of the world depends almost entirely upon education. I selected a limited number of recipients because I wanted to cover certain kinds of education, and felt I could get results with those named quicker and more directly than if the money were spread."

Eastman often made the beneficiary match his gift in some way, so the institution would have the confidence of standing on its own. For him, great wealth brought the greater opportunity to serve.


Kodak Today

Kodak, after coming back from bankruptcy, has started focusing more on providing digital prints, touch screens, and printers while continuing to support analogue film rolls by manufacturing them as well as the chemicals required for the development of the said rolls.

Because of its long list of patents, its printers Kodak was able to survive in the highly competitive printer market. Though not being able to make a lot of profit with the razor-thin profit margins, Kodak still managed to offer quality printers and have even become the staple in offices around the world.

Recently, Kodak sold its chemical business to a Chinese corporation but has managed to retain its film division. While it might seem like a tragic downfall to the once well-known giant, things seem to be looking their way with the recent rise in the sales of “still film rolls” due to the revived attention of shooting on an analogue camera instead of the digital one.

Go On, Tell Us What You Think!

Did we miss something? Come on! Tell us what you think about our article on History of Kodak in the comments section.

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