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|Algeria is a land made up almost exclusively of Arabs who are Muslim. Most Algerians are decendants of the Berbers. Arabic is the primary language of Algeria, with French and Berber spoken by large minorities.|
784,301 (July 2006 est.)
0-14 years: 20.4% (male 81,776/female 78,272)
15-64 years: 68% (male 270,254/female 263,354)
65 years and over: 11.6% (male 39,536/female 51,109) (2006 est.)
total: 34.9 years
male: 33.9 years
female: 35.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.53% (2006 est.)
12.56 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
7.68 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 7.04 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.74 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.82 years
male: 75.44 years
female: 80.31 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.82 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
less than 1,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5% (2001)
Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and other 4%
Greek, Turkish, English
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.6%
female: 96.3% (2003 est.)
Cyprus - Statistics & Facts
The Republic Of Cyprus gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1960, and later on, due to the outbreak of communal strife between the two main ethnic inhabiting communities, a separation between these group occurred. Currently, the Turkish Cypriot Community, located in the northern part of island, declared itself the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyrpus. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has its own government and its constitution differs from the Republic of Cyprus one. Greek and Turkish are the official languages spoken in the country. In addition to these two, English and Russian are spoken by a significant share of the population.
Due to the country’s location and climate, the service sector, which includes trade and tourism, employs the vast majority of the workforce, contributing by roughly four-fifths to the economic output. Although it reported a negative GDP growth rate between 2012 and 2014, Cyprus' economy recovered quickly and was out of the red again by 2015. The most important export and import partner is Greece with a share of about 11 percent in all exports, and 25.7 percent in all imports.
This text provides general information. Statista assumes no liability for the information given being complete or correct. Due to varying update cycles, statistics can display more up-to-date data than referenced in the text.
10. As per topcyprustaxi.eu, taxi drivers in Cyprus do not give change. They keep the change as a tip. A quick tip to save money in Cyprus is to tender exact change to the taxi driver.
11. Oddly, Cypriots do not like fishing and they do not fish, despite being an island nation.
12. In Cyprus, there are some cafes that are only for men.
13. Cypriots are big-time foodies. The typical Cyprus citizen likes to dine at their favorite restaurant once per week.
14. The shape of Cyprus is like that of a Cigar pipe. Have a close look at the map of Cyprus below.
Cyprus Immigration Statistics 1960-2021
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Standard Modern Greek and Standard Turkish are the two official languages of Cyprus. These languages are used by the government, courts, administration, media, and educational institutes of Cyprus. Greek was introduced in Cyprus by the Greek settlers who arrived in the island in about the 12th to 11th century BC. The general population uses Cypriot Greek and Cypriot Turkish as everyday spoken languages. However, the Cypriot Greek developed over centuries in the country and was heavily influenced by the various languages spoken by the different colonial groups who arrived in Cyprus over the years. The Cypriot Greek is significantly different from Standard Modern Greek.
The minority communities living in Cyprus speak their native languages in the country. The most popular minority languages spoken in Cyprus include:
Armenian is spoken by the ethnic Armenians living in Cyprus. These people have been living in the country since the sixth century but a new group of Armenian immigrants also arrived in the 20th century following the Armenian genocide in Turkey. Currently, about 3,000 people in Cyprus speak Armenian as their first language. Many of the ethnic Armenians living in Cyprus are bilingual in Armenian and Greek.
Cypriot Arabic is a variant of Arabic that is spoken by the ethnic Arabians living in Cyprus. The language is fast dying and is spoken by about 900 Cypriot Maronites living in the country of which most are aged above 30 years. Most speakers of this language are bilingual in Greek and Cypriot Arabic. Kormakitis in Cyprus is considered to host a significant population of Cypriot Maronites.
Kurbetcha is a little-studied minority language of Cyprus. The language is spoken by the Romani people living in the northern parts of the country. The language uses Romani vocabulary and Cypriot Turkish grammar. Little is known about this minority language and it is not protected by the country’s law.
The People of Cyprus
Type of Government: republic
Languages Spoken: Greek, Turkish, English
Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK) note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are only recognized by Turkey
National Holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960) note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as Independence Day
Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and other 4%
National Symbol: Cypriot mouflon (wild sheep) white dove
National Anthem or Song: Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian (Hymn to Liberty)
Districts of Cyprus Map
Cyprus (officially, Republic of Cyprus) is divided into 6 administrative districts (kaza). In alphabetical order, these districts are: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia and Paphos. The districts are subdivided into municipalities and communities.
Situated almost in the center of the Mesaoria Plains, on the banks of the Pedieos River, is Nicosia – the administrative capital and the largest city of Cyprus. Nicosia is also the financial and chief economic center of Cyprus. Cyprus is the 3 rd most populous Mediterranean island.
1 Answer 1
For a second opinion, here's what McEvedy and Jones had to say on the matter 1 back in 1979:
The population then enters the 100-200,000 band within which it remains for the whole of the period from the Iron Age to the mid 19th century. It touches the upper limit during the halcyon days of the Roman Empire, again during the Crusader era (13th century) and during the final phase of Venetian rule (16th century). It falls back sharply with the Black Death and, more lastingly, after the Turkish conquest.
They do credit Beloch with a much higher figure of 500,000 in AD 14, but go on to discuss why that figure, in light of later data, seems far too high. Colin McEvedy's own map for AD 362 2 shows its population at roughly 125,000.
1 - Atlas of World Population History, p115 (Part 1, "15a Cyprus")
with a surface area of 9,251 km² (density of 121.12 inhab./km²). The population of Cyprus is 1,120,489 inhabitants in the last census.The capital of Cyprus is the city of Nicosia which has 206,200 inhabitants. The president of the unitary presidential constitutional republic is Dimítris Khristófias.
Cyprus or Republic of Cyprus is a European state located in the Mediterranean Sea, on the eponymous island. The country is a member of the European Union, the UN and the Commonwealth. Since 1974, the island has been split into two parts. Indeed, the north has detached itself from the Cypriot Republic to form the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus which is not recognized by the international community.
List of current heads of state and government
|Prime Minister||Andrej Babiš|
Republic, Commonwealth member
Capital city: Nicosia
Administrative divisions: 6 districts or eparchies
Population: more than 1.1 million inhabitants
Main languages: Greek and Turkish
Main religion: Orthodox Christianity
Current President: Nikos Anastasiádis
A European island off the Middle East
The Republic of Cyprus occupies a large part of the island of the same name located in the Levantine Basin (Eastern Mediterranean). Although located off the coast of Turkey, Syria, Israel and Lebanon, in the Asian part of the Mediterranean, the island is considered European because of its culture and history.
With just over 9,250 km² and 648 kilometers of coastline, Cyprus is the third largest Mediterranean island.
The island is mountainous and its highest peak, Mount Olympus, culminates at 1,951 meters above sea level in the Troodos massif which occupies the entire center of the southern part of Cyprus. This region is particularly popular with tourists who discover many villages clinging to the mountainsides and monasteries in almost inaccessible "eagle nests" including the Kykkos monastery founded in the 11th century. It is also in this massif that tourists can enjoy the pleasures of winter sports on the 15 ski slopes open from January to March.
A second mountain range extends in the northern part of the island, the Kyrenia range, culminating at 1024 meters above sea level and separated from the Troodos by the Plaine de la MÃ © r6dee, an essentially agricultural region. Numerous castles built by the Byzantines from the 10th century recall the strategic position of the island in the Mediterranean.
The country is very arid because of the lack of permanent lakes and streams and despite the establishment of desalination systems for seawater.
Cyprus has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers from May to October and wetter and colder winters, regular rains from November to January and snowfall in the Troodos Mountains. The summers are more bearable along the coast thanks to the sea breeze, while temperatures often reach 36 ° in the plain of the Mesaoria due to its enclavement between the mountains.
Although formerly the island of Cyprus was almost entirely covered by coniferous and deciduous forests, it has largely given way to shrubs, grazing areas, herbaceous and scrubland. The wildlife consists largely of endemic or migratory birds, reptiles and sheep, a symbol of the island. Cyprus is also home to colonies of turtles laying their eggs in the sandy beaches.
The birthplace of Aphrodite
The legend tells that the goddess Aphrodite was born off Cyprus, a bubbling of foam and, charmed by the beauty of the island, would have made her dwelling of it.
Less poetic but closer to reality, the settlement of Cyprus probably began during the pre-ceramic Neolithic, a period of prehistory of the Near East extending from the 11th to the 9th millennium BC. At that time, men became sedentary and lived on hunting but also on agriculture.
Towards the 3rd millennium, several cities developed along the coasts and the excavations of necropolises made it possible to discover very beautiful anthropomorphic and zoomorphic potteries, witnesses of the opulence of the island which profits from its situation crossroads between the " Europe and the Middle East and its copper richness which gave it its name.
During the Bronze Age, Cypriot culture seems to have undergone many influences. Indeed, one finds large religious complexes and tombs of oriental type while the writing is very close to that of Crete.
This golden age ends with the destruction of many cities probably due to the attacks of the Sea Peoples during the migratory waves.
From the Persians to the Byzantines
As early as antiquity, Cyprus became the object of lust for many peoples attracted by its strategic position for trade, its wood and its copper which explains the artistic and cultural influences.
The island, however, remained independent, divided between ten city-kingdoms until the 6th century BC when the Persians managed to capture it after having fiercely contested the Greeks.
Cyprus was integrated into the Persian Empire before being successively captured by the Macedonians of Alexander the Great and by the Egyptians during the Ptolemaic dynasty.
In 58 BC, the island of Cyprus ceded by the Pharaohs to Rome became a Roman senatorial province. During the partition of the Roman Empire in 395, Cyprus was included in the lands granted to the Roman Empire of the East (Byzantine Empire), which granted it the right to own an autocephalous church and thus independent both from the legal point of view and on the spiritual level.
When Cyprus was invaded by the troops of the Umayyad caliphate in 649, an agreement allowed both the caliph and the Byzantine emperor to rule the island without taking into account the wars between the two empires. This situation will last three centuries despite the revolts of the people who are therefore subject to two taxations.
Finally, in 965, Cyprus became Byzantine, under Nicéphore Phocas and the rest for 150 years.
When in 1184, Isaac Doukas Comnene appropriated power in Cyprus, the emperor did not succeed in chasing him. It was then that Richard the Lionheart, on his way to lead the Third Crusade, made a forced stopover on the island and was very ill-received by the usurper prince who wanted to grab several ships. The king of England seized the island in a few days and imprisoned Isaac Doukas. Joined by Berengaria of Navarre, King Richard celebrates their wedding in Lemesos (Limassol).
Richard continues his route but leaves soldiers on the island which is successively sold to Robert de Sablé, a great Master of the Order of the Temple and to Guy de Lusignan who designates himself as King of Cyprus.
In 1291, the Mamelukes seized the citadel of Acre in Israel thus putting an end to the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem and the presence of the Westerners in the Holy Land. Hospitallers saved refuge in Cyprus. King Henry of Lusignan offered them the city of Limassol.
They are the ones who will endow the city with a defense system and lift a fleet capable of repelling the attacks of the Arab pirates. This is how Cyprus becomes a major maritime power. The Hospitallers, however, moved to the island of Rhodes after conquering it in 1307.
Cyprus is still a kingdom belonging to the family of Lusignan but the island is placed under the tutelage of Genoa, one of the two largest Italian maritime republics with Venice.
Having married a large Venetian family in 1464, James II of Lusignan took advantage of this support to expel the Genoese. On the death of the king and his heir, the island became a Venetian colony in 1489. Cyprus had a long period of peace until 1571 when the Ottomans seized the island at the end of the "Cyprus War ".
Cyprus is therefore under Ottoman domination and has to adapt to important changes. The property of the Catholics is confiscated for the benefit of the Turkish soldiers. Many Cypriots converted to Islam and now speak Turkish, even though Venetian influence is still present in the arts and architecture. Similarly, Cypriots of Greek descent grouped together as an autonomous community retain their own cultural identity.
In 1878, Cyprus benefited from the British protectorate while remaining Ottoman at the end of the Russian-Turkish War. Indeed, the United Kingdom played the role of mediator and it is in this capacity that the Ottoman Empire ceded the island to him in exchange for the payment of an annual tribute. This agreement expired at the beginning of the First World War and Cyprus became a British colony.
The Cypriot people who were hoping to gain closer membership to Greece culturally were disappointed. Independent movements are emerging and a first revolt of the Cypriots known as "Oktovriana", against the British government breaks out in 1931.
The revolt was severely repressed and Governor Sir Richmond Palmer instituted a repressive and even dictatorial policy (Palmerokratia). It is in this context that the Second World War begins.
At the end of this period, the nationalists resumed their movements and obtained a referendum in 1950. Enosis (attached to Greece) was voted by more than 95% of the population of Greek origin, but The British refuse to take this vote into account and pursue its policy of repression.
In 1955, the struggle resumed and Cyprus finally became an independent republic in 1960, but the country experienced new tensions within the government itself. Indeed, the Greek and Turkish politicians oppose one another with great vetoes, preventing any advance.
Seeing that any friendly settlement between the two communities is now impossible, the Turks are demanding partition of the island called "Taksim". This claim literally sets fire to powder and the country is in full civil war with atrocities in 1964. Turkish Cypriots call for Turkey's military intervention while the Greek Cypriots are fomenting a coup in 1974 in order to overthrow President Makarios III and to try once again to be annexed to Greece.
It was then that Turkey invaded the island and occupied the northern territories, cutting Cyprus in two. In 1983, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was proclaimed but not recognized by the international community, apart from Turkey.
Cyprus is a republic presided over by Nicos Anastasiades, a member of the conservative Democratic Rally, elected in February 2013 by 55.7% of the vote.
Members of Parliament are elected for a term of 5 years. Three of them must represent religious minorities (Maronite Christians, Roman Catholics and Armenian Orthodox). In principle, 24 seats are reserved for Turkish Cypriots but these have refused to sit since 1964 and their posts are therefore vacant.
Cyprus has been part of the European Union since 1 May 2004 and the euro area since 2008.
After several years of negative growth, the economy of Cyprus has recovered slowly since 2015, relying mainly on tourism, maritime transport and services. It also benefited from the rescue plan put in place by the EU and the IMF to emerge from the crisis.
The agricultural sector suffers from near-permanent droughts, and only sheep and goat farming and the cultivation of a few Mediterranean products such as olive, lemon or grape, and cereals and potatoes providing the revenues to the rural population.
The tertiary sector accounts for a large part of the GDP and a policy aimed at improving the hotel infrastructure makes it possible to attract "new" tourists, especially the Russians.
The total population of Cyprus is around 1,200,000. Despite a very low mortality rate and a life expectancy in excess of 78 years, natural increase is low. The immigration, however, allows for positive demographic developments in Cyprus.
77% of Cypriots are of Greek origin compared to 18% of Turkish origin. The other nations most represented in Cyprus are the United Kingdom, Romania, Bulgaria and Russia.
Similarly, Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot are the majority languages of the country. They present some differences with the Greek and Turkish classics which are the official languages of the country.
90% of the Cypriots are Orthodox Christians but there are several religious minorities, including the Maronite Church, an Eastern Catholic church headed by the Patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, and the Armenian Apostolic Church.
However, in the area claimed by the Turkish Cypriots, the population is predominantly Sunni Muslim, accounting for 18% of the total population of the island.
Cypriot cuisine is Mediterranean and similar to that of Greece and Turkey such as mezze, kebab or moussaka.
However, there are some Oriental and European influences, a legacy of its past.
Green and dry vegetables are ubiquitous and accompany meat dishes like kefta (dumplings). The dishes are often flavored with coriander, cumin and mint.
Cypriots also consume a lot of fruits.
Cyprus is a member of the European Union and therefore tourists from a Member State may move freely within its territory, including in the area occupied by Turkish Cypriots. They must simply carry valid identity papers.
The safety is assured throughout the country and no health risks are reported.
Only restriction to the program: it is forbidden to photograph the Turkish military zones.
Cyprus has turned its attention to tourism and its infrastructure is improving from season to season. The sunshine is almost permanent, only the winter months from November to January record some rains. However, it is recommended that those who are more fragile avoid the months of July and August because of the heat wave.
It is also possible to enjoy the pleasures of winter sports in the island's only ski resort at Mount Olympus.
Hiking and nature lovers appreciate the island's landscapes, from the beaches of the coast to the mountains of the Troodos Mountains. Cyprus also offers a rich architectural and cultural heritage. The visit of the monasteries, the archaeological sites of which Kourion and Paphos, castles, small villages or Kyrenia the Byzantine is essential.
Finally, the capital Nicosia seduces by the contrast between its splendid historical monuments and the modern architecture of its new districts.
CYPRUS BRIEF HISTORICAL SURVEY
Remains of the oldest known settlement in Cyprus dating from this period can be seen in Khirokitia and Kalavassos (Tenta), off the Nicosia-Limassol road. This civilization had developed along the North and South coasts. First only stone vessels were used. After 5000 B.C., the art of pottery was invented.
3900-2500 BC CHALCOLITHIC AGE
Most Chalcolithic establishments are found in Western Cyprus, where a fertility cult develops. The copper of the island begins to be exploited and used.
2500-1050 BC BRONZE AGE
Copper is more extensively exploited bringing wealth to Cyprus. Trade is built up with the Near East, Egypt and the Aegean. After 1400 BC, Mycenaeans from Greece reach the island, perhaps as merchants. During the 12th and 11th centuries several waves of Achaean Greeks come to settle on the island bringing with them the Greek language, their religion, their customs. They build new cities like Paphos, Salamis, Kition. Kourion. The island from now on is progressively hellenised.
1050-750 BC GEOMETRIC PERIOD
There are ten Kingdoms in the island. Phoenicians settle at Kition. The 8th century B.C. is a period of great prosperity.
750-325 BC ARCHAIC AND CLASSICAL PERIOD
The era of prosperity continues, but the island falls prey to several conquerors. Cypriot Kingdoms try to preserve their independence but come variously under the domination of Assyria, Egypt and Persia. King Evagoras of Salamis (who ruled from 411-374 BC) rebels against Persia and unifies the island but, after a great siege has to conclude peace with Persia and loses control of the whole island.
Alexander the Great defeats Persia and Cyprus becomes part of his empire.
325-58 BC HELLENISTIC PERIOD
After the succession struggles, between Alexander's generals, Cyprus eventually comes under the Hellenistic state of the Ptolemies of Egypt, and belongs from now onwards to the Greek Alexandrine world. The capital is now Paphos. This is a period of wealth for Cyprus.
58 BC - 330 AD ROMAN PERIOD
Cyprus becomes part of the Roman Empire, first as part of the province of Syria, then as a separate province under a proconsul. During the missionary journeys by Saints Paul and Barnabas, the Proconsul, Sergius Paulus is converted to Christianity and Cyprus becomes the first country to be governed by Christian. Destructive earthquakes occur during the 1st century B.C. and the 1at A.D. and cities are rebuilt. There is a great loss of life when the Jews who lived in Salamis rebel in 116, and from the plague in 164 AD. In 313 the Edict of Milan grants freedom of worship to Christians and Cypriot bishops attend the Council of Nicaea in 325.
330-1191 AD BYZANTINE PERIOD
After the division of the Roman Empire in two parts, Cyprus comes under the Eastern Roman Empire, known as Byzantium, with Constantinople as its capital. Constantine the Great's mother, Helena is said to have stopped in Cyprus on her journey from the Holy Land, with remnants of the Holy Cross and founded the monastery of Stavrovouni. More earthquakes during the 4th century A.D. completely destroy the main cities. Cities lose their splendour and remain in ruins. New cities arise, Constantia is now the capital, and large basilicas are built as from the 4-5th century A.D. In 488, after the tomb of St. Barnabas is found, Emperor Zeno gives the Archibishop of Cyprus full autonomy and privileges including holding a sceptre instead of a pastoral staff, wearing a purple mantle and signing in red ink. In 647 Arabs invade the island under Muawiya. In 688 Emperor Justinian II and Caliph al-Malik sign a treaty neutralising Cyprus, but violations are reported, and the island is also attacked by pirates until 965 when Emperor Nicephoros Phocas expels Arabs from Asia Minor and Cyprus.
1191-1192 AD RICHARD THE LIONHEART AND THE TEMPLARS
Isaac Comnenus, self proclaimed governor of Cyprus, is discourteous to survivors of a shipwreck involving ships of Richard I's fleet on their way to the Third Crusade. Richard defeats Isaac and takes possession of Cyprus, marrying Berengaria of Navarree in Limassol, where she is crowned Queen of England. Richard then sells the island to the Knights Templars for 100,000 dinars but they resell it at the same price to Guy de Lusignan, one of the Crusader Knights.
1192-1489 AD FRANKISH (LUSIGNAN) PERIOD
Cyprus is ruled on the feudal system and the Catholic church officially replaces the Greek Orthodox, although the latter manages to survive. Many beautiful gothic buildings belong to this period including the Cathedrals of Ayia Sophia in Nicosia, Saint Nicholas in Famagusta and Bellapais Abbey. The city of Famagusta becomes one of the richest in the Near East, and Nicosia becomes the capital of Cyprus and the seat of the Lusignan Kings. The Lusignan dynasty ends when the last queen Catherina Cornaro cedes Cyprus to Venice in 1489.
1489-1571 AD VENETIAN PERIOD
Venetians see Cyprus as a last bastion against the Ottomans in the east Mediterranean, and fortify the island tearing down lovely buildings in Nicosia to bring the city into a tight encircled area defended by bastions and a moat which can still be seen today. They also build impressive walls around Famagusta which were considered at the time as works of military art.
1571- 1878 AD OTTOMAN PERIOD
In 1570 troops attack Cyprus, capture Nicosia, slaughter the population (20,000) and lay siege to Famagusta for a year. After a brave defense by Venetian commander Marc Antonio Bragadin, Famagusta capitulates to the Ottoman commander Lala Mustafa, who first gives free passage to the besieged but when he sees how few they are, orders the flaying, drawing and quartering of Bragadin and puts the others to death. On annexation to the Ottoman Empire, the Latin hierarchy are expelled or converted to Islam and the Greek Orthodox faith restored in time, the Archibishop as leader of the Greek Orthodox, becomes their representative to the Porte. When the Greek War of Independence breaks out in 1821, the Archibishop of Cyprus, Kyprianos, three bishops and hundreds of civic leaders are executed.
1878-1960 BRITISH PERIOD
Under the 1878 Cyprus Convention, Britain assumes administration of the island, which remains formally part of the Ottoman Empire until 1914 when Britain annexes Cyprus, after the Ottoman Empire enters the First World War on the side of Germany. In 1923 under the Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey renounces any claim to Cyprus. In 1925 Cyprus is declared a Crown colony. In 1940 Cypriot volunteers serve in various branches of the British Armed Forces throughout the Second World War. Hopes for self-determination now being granted to other countries in the post-war period are shattered by the British who consider the island vitally strategic. An Armed Liberation Struggle, after all means of peaceful settling of the problem are exchausted, breaks out in 1955 which last until 1959.
1960 REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS
According to the Zurich-London Treaty, Cyprus becomes an independent republic on 16th August 1960. It is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe and the Commonwealth as well as the Non-Aligned Movement. According to the above Treaty, Britain retains in the island two Sovereign Bases, (158.5 sq km) at Dhekelia and Akrotiri-Episkopi.
The 1960 Constitution of the Cyprus Republic proves unworkable in many of its provisions, and this made impossible its smooth implementation. When in 1963, the President of the Republic proposed some amendments to facilitate the functioning of the state, the Turkish community responded with rebellion (Dec. 1963), the Turkish ministers withdrew from the Cabinet and the Turkish civil servants ceased attending their offices while Turkey threatened to invade Cyprus. Ever since then, the aim of the Turkish Cypriot leadership, acting on instructions from the Turkish Government, has been the partitioning of Cyprus and annexation by Turkey. In July 1974, a coup is staged in Cyprus by the Military junta, then in power in Athens, for the overthrow of President Makarios. On 20 July 1974, Turkey launched an invasion with 40,000 troops against defenseless Cyprus. Since 1974, 37% of the island is under Turkish military occupation and 200,000 Greek Cypriots, 40% of the total Greek Cypriot population, were forced to leave their homes in the occupied area and were turned into refugees. The invasion of Turkey and the occupation of 37% of the island's territory as well as the continuing violation of the fundamental human rights of the people of Cyprus have been condemned by international bodies, such as the UN General Assembly, the Non-aligned Movement, the Commonwealth and the Council of Europe.