Category: Information

The Last Notes

The Marshall Plan (1947-1952)

The Marshall Plan (1947-1952)

The Marshall Plan was a financial aid program, developed by US Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947. Its purpose was to help rebuild Europe, devastated by World War II. It is as much the fear of seeing a Europe ruined by war cease to supply itself with American products, as the prospect of seeing communism progress on the Old Continent, which incites the American authorities to propose this plan of economic assistance. to European countries.

Battle of Reichshoffen (August 6, 1870)

Battle of Reichshoffen (August 6, 1870)

In popular culture, the battle of Frœschwiller-Woerth is known as the “Battle of Reichshoffen”, from the name of the famous so-called “Reichshoffen” cuirassiers who heroically sacrificed themselves on August 6, 1870 during unnecessary charges against a much larger enemy. numerous and powerfully armed, during the Franco-Prusian war of 1870.

Paris Commune (March 18 - May 28, 1871)

Paris Commune (March 18 - May 28, 1871)

The Paris Commune is the name given to the insurrectionary movement and government set up by the Parisians at the end of the Franco-German war (1870-1871), from March 18 to May 28, 1871. After the siege of Paris and the signing of the Franco-German armistice, the Parisians, whom Adolphe Thiers wanted to disarm, rose up and set up a revolutionary government dominated by the Blanquists and the anarchists.

Fairies have a story

Fairies have a story

In the 12th century the fairies appear, out of all religion, as detached from a mythology that has not survived time. These legendary female characters with supernatural powers create their own world of references, tapping into ancient beliefs that have never been totally forgotten.

British Empire: global hegemony (1815-1919)

British Empire: global hegemony (1815-1919)

La victoire sur Napoléon à Waterloo, le 18 juin 1815, ouvre la voie à la suprématie mondiale de l& 39;Empire britannique. En effet, ce n’est pas vers l’Europe que la Grande-Bretagne va désormais tourner ses efforts, mais vers le reste du monde. C’est la construction de l’Empire, certes déjà entamée le siècle précédent, mais qui va se confirmer tout au long du XIXe siècle (jusqu’en 1914), pour contribuer à la première mondialisation.

Jean Jaurès, socialist and ardent pacifist - Biography

Jean Jaurès, socialist and ardent pacifist - Biography

Founder of the newspaper L & 39; Humanité in 1904 and of the Socialist Party SFIO a year later, Jean Jaurès would embody peaceful socialism until his assassination on the eve of the First World War. Criticizing the Marxist conception of the seizure of power, he will oppose the use of violence all his life, whether in the social sphere or in matters of foreign policy.

Robespierre (1758-1794) - Biography

Robespierre (1758-1794) - Biography

Maximilien de Robespierre is a French politician who played a major role during the Revolution. Idealist and uncompromising, his name is often associated with the period of terror. He is one of the most controversial French revolutionaries, and continues to provoke a number of debates, among historians and politicians alike.

Ephemeris of July 29

Ephemeris of July 29

1987: François Mitterrand and Margaret Thatcher sign the Franco-British treaty authorizing the construction of the Channel Tunnel. 1958: President Eisenhower signs the law establishing NASA in order to win the & 34; space race & 34; engaged against the USSR. 1881: The Third Republic votes the law on freedom of the press, of which Article I states: & 34; the printing press and the bookstore are free & 34 ;.

Adolf Hitler - Biography of the Nazi Dictator

Adolf Hitler - Biography of the Nazi Dictator

German politician of Austrian origin, Adolf Hitler was chancellor and dictator of the German Third Reich from 1933 to 1945. At the head of a state that had become totalitarian, he organized, with the Nazi party he founded, the The enlistment of the population and the repression of oppositions, then realizes his project of hegemony over Europe which he plunges into chaos and desolation.

Henri IV - King of France (1589-1610) - Biography

Henri IV - King of France (1589-1610) - Biography

King of Navarre and leader of the Huguenots during the Wars of Religion, Henry IV became King of France in 1589. First ruler of the Bourbon dynasty, he worked to pacify the kingdom (Edit de Nantes), and restore the 39; authority of the monarchy undermined by the civil war. His assassination by Ravaillac on May 14, 1610 forged his legend and made him enter popular imagery in the pantheon of just and good kings.

Wars of the Vendée (1793-1796) - A genocide?

Wars of the Vendée (1793-1796) - A genocide?

Between 1793 and 1796, the Vendée War pitted Catholic and Royalist rebels from western France against the Republican troops of the revolutionary government. During this period, around 200,000 Vendéens will be massacred. The Vendée, depopulated and ruined, will take almost a century to recover.

Ides of Mars, the assassination of Caesar (March 15, 1944)

Ides of Mars, the assassination of Caesar (March 15, 1944)

The day of the Ides of March 44 BC. J.-C., Julius Caesar, become dictator for life, reigns on the Roman political life. Originally, a young aristocrat from an old but lackluster family, he became a member of the "popular party" in Rome, a movement opposing the old and prestigious aristocracy, embodied by Sylla.

Vel d'Hiv roundup (July 16-17, 1942)

Vel d'Hiv roundup (July 16-17, 1942)

On July 16 and 17, 1942, during the Vel d & 39; Hiv roundup, the French police carried out the mass arrest of thousands of Jews, on the orders of the Vichy government. Men, women and children were soon brought back to the Vélodrome d'Hiver enclosure in Paris, the place of the beginning.

July 22nd ephemeris

July 22nd ephemeris

1832: Death of Napoleon II, known as the & 34; Aiglon & 34;, son of Napoleon I. 1808: The French are driven out of Spain, forcing Napoleon to intervene there personally. 1461: Death of Charles VII. His son ascends the throne under the name of Louis XI. 1209: The crusader army charged with eradicating the Cathars at the behest of Pope Innocent III seizes Béziers.

Le Dauphin François (1518-1536): an unknown prince

Le Dauphin François (1518-1536): an unknown prince

On February 28, 1518, Queen Claude of France gave birth to her first son. Named François after his father, the child is titled Dauphin of France and it is on him that the hopes of the dynasty rest. By the death of his mother in 1524, François inherited the Duchy of Brittany and was crowned in Rennes in 1532 by Bishop Yves Mahyeuc, he was then known as François III of Brittany.

July 7th ephemeris

July 7th ephemeris

1944: Georges Mandel, former Minister of the Interior of Paul Reynaud, is shot dead by seven bullets in the chest by French militiamen in the forest of Fontainebleau. 1904: In France, enactment of a law which forbids the teaching to all religious congregations. 1807: Napoleon I and Tsar of Russia Alexander I sign the peace treaty of Tilsit (Russia) following the French victory of Friedland in June.

Invention of writing (4th millennium BC)

Invention of writing (4th millennium BC)

Around 3400 BC, the Sumerians invented a primitive form of writing to record business transactions. The cuneiform script, obtained by imprinting reeds on wet clay, took several hundred years to evolve into a more complex system and the invention of the alphabet.

July 2nd ephemeris

July 2nd ephemeris

1940: Following the signing of the armistice with Germany on June 22, the French government leaves Bordeaux for Vichy in the free zone. 1816: On the road to Senegal, one of the most beautiful boats of the French navy , the frigate & 34; La Méduse & 34 ;, ran aground on the Arguin bank with 395 people on board.

Battle of Lepanto (October 7, 1571)

Battle of Lepanto (October 7, 1571)

The Battle of Lepanto is a naval combat that took place on October 7, 1571 near the Gulf of Patras and pitted a Christian fleet, mainly Venetian, commanded by Don Juan of Austria and the Ottoman fleet of Ali Pasha. This first major naval victory of the Christians against the Muslim Turks is a turning point in European history and marks the end of Ottoman rule in the Mediterranean.

Night of the Long Knives (June 30, 1934)

Night of the Long Knives (June 30, 1934)

The "Night of the Long Knives" was the setting for a bloody cleansing carried out within the Nazi Party by Chancellor Adolf Hitler. On June 30, 1934 in Munich, the SA recovered from a night of excess that saw them challenge the leadership of the Nazi Party. Their awakening is brutal, Hitler himself has come from Berlin with his personal guard to put them in line.