Category: Information

The Last Notes

The Incas, an empire in the Andes

The Incas, an empire in the Andes

The Incas are at the origin of the founding of the last great empire of pre-Columbian America. It stretched along the Andes for nearly 5,000 kilometers from the equator to central Chile and was linked by a network of roads and suspension bridges. Despite its wealth and power, the Inca Empire only lasted a century before succumbing to the blows of Pizarro and the Spanish conquistadors.

Atala at the tomb (Girodet)

Atala at the tomb (Girodet)

"Atala au tombeau" or "The Funeral of Atala" is a painting measuring two meters by two meters sixty executed by the painter Girodet in 1808 and exhibited at the Louvre. Inspired by Christian iconography, the painting represents three figures present at the entrance of a cave, at sunset: Chactas, the overwhelmed lover, who holds the knees of Atala the young girl who does not stand is not given to him.

Ephemeris of June 22

Ephemeris of June 22

1941: Operation & 34; Barbarossa & 34 ;. German troops invade the Soviet Union, breaking the German-Soviet pact. 1940: France, represented by General Huntziger, signs the armistice in the forest of Compiègne, at Rethondes, in the same wagon where the l & 39; German armistice on November 11, 1918.

The windmill (700 BC)

The windmill (700 BC)

The wind was along with water the first source of energy exploited by man. The windmill first appeared in the East, in ancient Egypt in Iran, and it was exploited in Persia for irrigation as early as 600 BC The wings are arranged radially on a vertical axis.

Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204)

Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204)

Eleanor of Aquitaine, also called Eléonore de Guyenne, was twice Queen: of France with Louis VII, then of England with Henry II of Plantagenêt. Young "moving" girl, then mother of three kings, she upset the male tradition of power by administering her land and taking a preeminent role in public affairs.

Jules Hardouin Mansart, architect to Louis XIV

Jules Hardouin Mansart, architect to Louis XIV

Jules Hardouin-Mansart was a 17th century French architect whose work marked the height of the Louis XIV style. Its name evokes the "Mansards" of our roofs, even if it is not directly Hardouin-Mansart which is at the origin. We owe, among other things, to this "great patron of the architecture of the Sun King" the completion of the Palace of Versailles, its Hall of Mirrors and the Grand Trianon.

The Gauls and Gold (Archeology files)

The Gauls and Gold (Archeology files)

"There is hardly any deposit of silver on the land of Gaul, but gold in abundance that the inhabitants pick up ..." (Diodorus of Sicily, V, 27, 1, d & 39; ; after Posidonius). The Gauls were associated with gold in ancient times. Although this link is weaker today, Gallic works preserved in museums remind us that Gallic gold was indeed a reality.

Ephemeris of June 18

Ephemeris of June 18

1815. In Waterloo in Belgium the French army of Emperor Napoleon I is defeated by Prussian and British units. This is the end of the Napoleonic epic. 1940. In London, the brigadier general Charles de Gaulle on a provisional basis launches an appeal to the French on the waves of the BBC. De Gaulle urges his compatriots to continue the fight against Germany, despite the upcoming armistice.

Ephemeris of June 15

Ephemeris of June 15

1215. The English barons impose on King John of England (known as John Landless) a treaty called Magna Carta or Magna Carta. This treaty limits the prerogatives of the sovereign and is constituted as the basis of current English parliamentarism. 1924. Many of the 250,000 Native Americans are finally granted full American citizenship.

Ephemeris of November 17

Ephemeris of November 17

1954: Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser becomes President of Egypt. 1869: Inauguration of the Suez Canal, which connects the Mediterranean to the Red Sea. 1831: End of greater Colombia, from which Ecuador is detached and Venezuela. 1604: Sir Walter Raleigh is tried for treason in England and imprisoned.

The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221)

The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221)

The resounding failure of the Fourth Crusade, which saw it being diverted to Constantinople, gives the spirit of the crusade a terrible blow. However, popular movements also intervene, suggesting that only the humble can free the tomb of Christ. It is in this curious context, but also that of an East where Latins and Muslims negotiate, that the Fifth Crusade will be launched.

Battle of the Dunes (June 14, 1658)

Battle of the Dunes (June 14, 1658)

On June 14, 1658, at the Battles of the Dunes, the conclusion of a twenty-five year war between France and Spain took place. The French, commanded by Turenne and allies once was not customary to the English, confronted the Spaniards there, one of whose commanders was none other than the Grand Condé, a former slinger.

The Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1187)

The Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1187)

The central motive of the First Crusade was the liberation of Christ's tomb in Jerusalem. The importance of the city, a major pilgrimage site long before it was taken in 1099, was central to Western Christians. It was therefore logical that the kingdom created around her as early as 1099 was the most important of the Latin states, and that its sovereign had preeminence (at least in theory and in will) over the other princes and counts.

Ephemeris of June 2

Ephemeris of June 2

455: The Vandals led by their King Genseric plunder Rome. Contrary to legend, they do not sack it, under the terms of an agreement made with Pope Leo I, but seize a fantastic booty. 1875: The American engineer Alexandre Graham Bell discovers by accident the principle of the telephone .

Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America

Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America

Jefferson Davis was an American politician, advocate for state rights and pre-Civil War slavery, and the sole president of the Confederate States of America from 1861 to 1865. Great figures in history are often confronted with a antagonist - sometimes as famous as they are, and sometimes doomed to relative obscurity.

Ephemeris of May 30

Ephemeris of May 30

1942: The Royal Air Force (RAF) conducts its first & 34; 1000 Bombers Raid & 34; on Cologne, a German city on the left bank of the Rhine. 1778: Death of Voltaire, writer and philosopher of the Enlightenment. 1631: King Théophraste Renaudot's doctor obtains from the Minister Richelieu the monopoly of the press.

Tomb of Vix (Gold Coast)

Tomb of Vix (Gold Coast)

The tomb of Vix was discovered in 1953 in Burgundy, at the foot of Mont Lassois, site of one of the great princely residences of the Hallstatt civilization (or culture). The treasure of Vix's tomb belonged to a Celtic princess who lived in the oppidum of Mont Lassois in the 5th century BCE, a region prospered thanks to the passage of tin from Cornwall to the Mediterranean.

The Popular Front in France (1936)

The Popular Front in France (1936)

The Popular Front was a coalition of different left parties that ruled France from June 1936 to April 1938. The Popular Fronts in Europe were only made possible by a major change in the policy of the Soviet Union, which until in 1933, had banned the Communists of the various countries from any collaboration with the Social Democrats and the bourgeois left.

Ephemeris of June 11

Ephemeris of June 11

1971: The 58th SFIO Congress opens in Epinay-sur-Seine, which will lead to the creation of the Socialist Party, led by François Mitterrand. 1942: The Afrikakorps, German expeditionary force under the orders of Marshal Rommel, s & 39; ; seizes Bir Hakeim, despite the heroic defense of the Free French Forces (FFL) commanded by General Koenig, who resisted the German offensive for 16 days.

Ephemeris of June 6

Ephemeris of June 6

1944: Operation Overlord, Normandy landings. 5,000 Allied ships land nearly 130,000 men on 35 kilometers of Cotentin beaches held by German troops. The disembarkation, which was preceded by intense air preparation and airborne operations, quickly proved to be a success, despite very hard battles like at Omaha Beach.