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The Last Notes

Ephemeris of November 18

Ephemeris of November 18

1936: Suicide of Popular Front Home Minister Roger Salengro, after a campaign of slander led by the far-right. 1905: Japan establishes its protectorate over Korea. 1830: Proclamation of independence of Belgium. 1803: The decisive victory of the Haitians over the Napoleonic troops at Vertières results in the independence of the island.

November 11, 1918, the armistice put an end to the Great War

November 11, 1918, the armistice put an end to the Great War

The armistice of November 11, 1918 ended World War I. Signed in Rethondes in a General Foch wagon in the middle of the Compiègne forest, it signals the end of the fighting between the Allies and Germany which has lasted for four years. The Great War was responsible for the death of 9 million soldiers including 1.3 million for France and 15 million civilians.

Charles de Gaulle - Biography

Charles de Gaulle - Biography

French general and statesman, Charles de Gaulle was the leader of Free France during World War II and the founder of the Fifth French Republic. Penetrated with a sense of history and driven by a fierce desire to defend and embody his country, he had to lead France during the two major crises of the Second World War and the Algerian War.

Ephemeris of November 20

Ephemeris of November 20

1975: Death of the dictator Franco. Spain becomes a constitutional monarchy under the reign of Juan Carlos. 1962: End of the Cuban Crisis. Castro accepts the withdrawal of Russian bombers and Kennedy lifts the naval blockade of the island. 1945: Opening of the Nuremberg trials. Most of the dignitaries of the Nazi regime must answer for their crimes.

Ephemeris of October 21

Ephemeris of October 21

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Ephemeris of November 5

Ephemeris of November 5

2004: The Chilean army for the first time recognizes responsibility for human rights violations recorded under the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet (1973-1990). 1996: Re-election of Democratic President Bill Clinton. 1956: Crisis from Suez, British paratroopers jump on Port Said; the USSR threatens to intervene with missiles if London and Paris do not agree to a ceasefire.

Ephemeris of November 7

Ephemeris of November 7

1987: Tunisian President Bourguiba is dismissed for health reasons and replaced by Ben Ali. 1944: Rooselvelt is elected President of the United States for the fourth time. 1659: Signature of the Treaty of the Pyrenees, which seals peace between Spain and France, for the benefit of the latter, after almost a century of conflict.

Ephemeris of November 9

Ephemeris of November 9

1989: Fall of the Berlin Wall. After 28 years of separation between east and west, the Wall of Shame crumbles, dragging in its wake the Soviet system. 1970: Death of Charles de Gaulle, who died in Colombey, a year and a half after his resignation. 1938: Kristallnacht in Germany.

Pepin the Short - King of the Franks (751-768)

Pepin the Short - King of the Franks (751-768)

Son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne, Pépin le Bref was king of the francs from 751 to 768. He was the founder of the Carolingian dynasty, which he legitimized by a hitherto unknown rite by being anointed with oil saint at her coronation by the bishops. During his reign, he pursued a skilful policy, made of alliance with the papacy and territorial conquests.

Plutarch, Greek thinker - Biography and work

Plutarch, Greek thinker - Biography and work

Philosopher, physician, moralist and biographer of Greek origin, Plutarch was born around AD 46. A respected great man of his time, he made the link between Greece and Rome - of which he became a citizen - and distinguished himself among other things with his Parallel Lives, comparative biographies of famous men. His moral works inspired many of his historical plays for Shakespeare.

Ephemeris of October 19

Ephemeris of October 19

1944: The American army lands in the Philippines, occupied by the Japanese. 1935: The League of Nations votes sanctions against Italy, after its intervention in Abyssinia. 1812: Napoleon I begins to evacuate Moscow. 1789: Foundation of the Club des Jacobins in Paris, rue Saint-Honoré. 1781: Capitulation of the English in Yorktown (Virginia), as the American War of Independence draws to a close.

Ephemeris of October 26

Ephemeris of October 26

1962: Nikita Khrushchev proposes to withdraw Soviet rockets from Cuba if the United States abandons its bases in Turkey - which Washington refuses. 1911: Proclamation of the Chinese Republic. 1795: In France, the Convention separates and gives way to the regime constitutional said of the Directory.

Mesopotamia, the first civilization

Mesopotamia, the first civilization

The first civilization in the history of mankind was born in Mesopotamia in the 5th millennium BC. For over two thousand years, it spawned the most powerful and developed states in the world. At the origin of many inventions, including writing, the Mesopotamian world had its imprint on its neighbors in the Middle East, Egypt and the Indus Valley, before beginning to decline around 500 BC.

Georges Clemenceau - Biography

Georges Clemenceau - Biography

A great figure of the Third Republic, Georges Clemenceau enjoyed a political career of exceptional longevity. Talented with rhetoric and not devoid of humor, the one who will be nicknamed "the Tiger" and then "the Father the Victory" ardently defended his vision of society, a combination of social justice and republican order.

Ephemeris of October 23

Ephemeris of October 23

1956: Anti-communist uprising in Hungary. the USSR will end the insurgency on November 4 with the entry of Russian tanks into Budapest. 1942: Battle of El-Alamein. The allies under the leadership of General Montgomery stop the advance of the Germans under General Rommel in North Africa.

Ephemeris of October 29

Ephemeris of October 29

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Thanksgiving: origin of the American holiday

Thanksgiving: origin of the American holiday

Thanksgiving day, which means "Thanksgiving", is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November in the United States and on the second Monday in October in Canada. Every year, Americans celebrate, around the Thanksgiving turkey, this tradition established in the 17th century whose origins go back to the founding pilgrims of the colony of Plymouth.

Climate change, danger to heritage

Climate change, danger to heritage

Jacques Chirac declared in 2002 during the 4th Earth Summit: “Our house is on fire and we are looking elsewhere. If the issue of climate change is a widely publicized subject, the consequences for cultural and archaeological heritage are less so. Some sites are weakened or disappear following climatic changes (floods, fires, thaw, etc.).

Hieronymus Bosch - Biography and works

Hieronymus Bosch - Biography and works

Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450-1516) was a Flemish primitive painter of singular genius, famous for his fantastic iconography in an inexhaustible narrative sense, sometimes attributed to a popular tradition, sometimes to alchemy, but never far removed from moral and religious concerns of his time. His art, at the crossroads of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, describes a world that is both terrifying and enchanting, between heaven and hell.

Saint-Simon (Louis de Rouvroy) - Biography

Saint-Simon (Louis de Rouvroy) - Biography

Louis de Rouvroy, better known under the name of “Saint-Simon”, is a French memorialist whose Mémoires (1691-1723) constitute both historical and human testimony on the end of the reign of Louis XIV and on the Regency. It was already compared during his lifetime "to the most interesting and the most pleasant of dictionaries" by Marshal de Belle-Isle, while the first edition of his Mémoires did not appear until 1829.