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The Last Notes

Last days in the temple prison, diary of the daughter of Louis XVI

Last days in the temple prison, diary of the daughter of Louis XVI

Marie Thérèse Charlotte of France, nicknamed Madame Royale, was a little girl of fourteen when she began to write in 1793 her Journal of the Last Days at the Prison du Temple, the last days for each member of her family, shortly before her disappearance from his father King Louis XVI, then from his mother Marie-Antoinette, his aunt Madame Elisabeth and his brother Louis.

Ephemeris of August 8

Ephemeris of August 8

1974: Involved in the watergate scandal, the President of the United States Richard Nixon announces his resignation. 1918: As the German attacks become less effective and the arrival of American troops made it possible in July to reverse the trend, Foch launches a vast Allied offensive, which would culminate in the November 11 armistice.

The Kings of France during the Renaissance

The Kings of France during the Renaissance

The Renaissance in France is often reduced to the reign of Francis I, a kind of prosperous period before the horror of the Wars of Religion. However, it is more correct to start this period with Charles VIII, and to conclude it with Henry II. For political reasons (the situation in France, the evolution of the monarchy), and in other areas, such as the arts or the relationship with Italy, whose Renaissance began a while ago.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagazaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, brutally bring humanity into the nuclear age. They will bring about the Japanese surrender and temporarily assert the military supremacy of the United States over the USSR. To hasten the end of the war in the Pacific, the Americans dropped the first atomic bomb in history, "Little Boy", on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.

Invention of the train: steam locomotive and railway

Invention of the train: steam locomotive and railway

Richard Trevithick can be considered to be the inventor of the train when his first steam locomotive appeared in Cornwall, southern England, in 1804. From 1840 onwards, the railway experienced a meteoric development in the countries that had coal, or could easily import it, such as Europe and the United States.

Ephemeris of August 4

Ephemeris of August 4

1944: Anne Frank and her family are arrested by the Gestapo. His journal would become a posthumous literary success. 1914: World War I: despite the country's neutrality, the Germans invaded Belgium. 1789: French Revolution: the National Constituent Assembly proclaims the end of feudal rule and the abolition of privileges .

Henri III - King of France (1574-1589)

Henri III - King of France (1574-1589)

Henri III, who was assassinated in 1589, was the last ruler of the Valois dynasty. A skilled legislator, he showed a strong desire for national unity in a France then undermined by the Wars of Religion. Intelligent and cultured, this king of France left a contrasting image of himself, sometimes hostage to a black legend, where homophobia is mixed with accusations of inconstancy, even tyranny.

Bombing of Guernica (April 26, 1937)

Bombing of Guernica (April 26, 1937)

The bombing of Guernica by German air force on April 26, 1937 forever transformed this small Basque town into a symbol of the Spanish Civil War, and beyond fascist barbarism. Republican stronghold during the Spanish Civil War, it was devastated by aerial bombardments which claimed nearly 2,000 victims.

July 26 ephemeris

July 26 ephemeris

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July 23 ephemeris

July 23 ephemeris

1974: The Greek military regime announces the return to a civilian government: Constantine Caramanlis returns from exile and is sworn in as Prime Minister. 1952: The monarchy is overthrown in Egypt by a junta of officers. King Farouk goes into exile in Monaco. 1945: Indicted with the crime of high treason for collaborating with Germany from 1940 to 1945, Marshal Philippe Pétain appears before the High Court of Justice in Paris.

Battle of Castillon (1453)

Battle of Castillon (1453)

Multiple defeats, humiliations and clashes find their conclusion at the Battle of Castillon, the final engagement of the Hundred Years War where the fate of the two great kingdoms of Christendom is at stake. In 1453, all that remained of the prestigious continental empire formed by the Plantagenets were illusions and the wealthy Guyenne.

Ephemeris of July 25

Ephemeris of July 25

1957: The day after the end of the French protectorate, the Beys monarchy is abolished in Tunisia and the Republic proclaimed. 1909: French aviator Louis Blériot crosses the Channel from Calais to Dover aboard the plane that carries his nom.1593: Henri de Navarre, future Henri IV and pretender to the throne of France, solemnly abjures the Protestant confession and converts to Catholicism to assert his rights to the crown.

Hadrian, the Philhellene Emperor (117-138)

Hadrian, the Philhellene Emperor (117-138)

The Roman Emperor Hadrian is one of the best known Roman rulers in the world. An emblematic representative of the century of the Antonines, he reformed and radically transformed the Empire. Lovers of arts and letters, the ruins of his palace in Tivoli remind the visitor of the heyday of Rome.

Diane de Poitiers, favorite of King Henry II - Biography

Diane de Poitiers, favorite of King Henry II - Biography

Diane de Poitiers, royal mistress of Henri II is still a living legend today. She never forgot her principles "always be in honorable bearing, in a cold and confident manner, humble gaze, low speech, constant and firm, always in one word, without wavering, moderation in everything".

Ephemeris of July 13

Ephemeris of July 13

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Operation Valkyrie: the attack on Hitler (July 20, 1944)

Operation Valkyrie: the attack on Hitler (July 20, 1944)

Operation Valkyrie was a plot by a group of high-ranking Wehrmacht officers, who sought to eliminate Adolf Hitler as early as 1943, to save Germany. Count Claus von Stauffenberg played a key role in this conspiracy, which culminated on July 20, 1944 in an attempted assassination of the Führer.

Ephemeris of July 8

Ephemeris of July 8

1943: Arrested on June 21 by Klaus Barbie's Gestapo in Caluire, near Lyon, Jean moulin dies during his transfer to Germany. 1853: The American commander Matthew Perry arrives in Tokyo with two frigates to force Japan to s & 39; open to the West after two centuries of isolation.

July 4th ephemeris

July 4th ephemeris

1987: The Rhone Assize Court sentences Klaus Barbie, former Gestapo chief in Lyon, to life in prison for crimes against humanity. 1187 Saladin defeats the troops of the King of Jerusalem and the Grand Master of the Templars at the Battle of Hattin, near Lake Tiberias, and began the Muslim reconquest of the Middle East.

The French secret services during World War II

The French secret services during World War II

Quickly defeated in June 1940, France played, on the strictly military level, a relatively secondary role in the war of 1939-1945. But in the little-known field of intelligence, the important role of resistance networks, Gaullist services but also Vichy, is gradually beginning to be reassessed.

Ephemeris of June 30

Ephemeris of June 30

1960: Belgian King Baudouin I, Congolese President Joseph Kasavubu and his Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, celebrate Congo & 39; s independence in Léopoldville. 1934: & 34; Night of the long knives & 34 ;. On the night of June 30, 1934, Hitler had Ernst Röhm's SA leaders eliminated. 1520: The Spaniards led by Cortés were driven out by the Aztecs from Tenochtitlán (present-day Mexico) during a night that would be called & 34; Noche Sad & # 39; 34 ;.