Category: The collections

The Last Notes

Separation of Church and State (law of 1905)

Separation of Church and State (law of 1905)

The law of separation of the Churches and the State of December 9, 1905 put an end to the concordance regime of 1801 which associated in France the Catholic Church and the State. Anchored in the republican tradition, the idea of ​​a separation of the Catholic Church and the French State was already pronounced by the revolutionaries on February 21, 1795.

Halloween - Origin and history

Halloween - Origin and history

The term Halloween is the contraction of the English expression "All Hallows Eve" which means "The Eve of All Saints". Its origin dates back more than 2,500 years under the name of the feast of Samain. This Celtic and Gallic festival was celebrated to welcome the New Year but also the spirits of the deceased.

The Merovingians - Dagobert I - Les Rois lazy

The Merovingians - Dagobert I - Les Rois lazy

The matrix dynasty of French royalty, the Merovingians were for a long time the victims of a "black legend", maintained from the 6th century on by Gregory of Tours, then by their successors, the Carolingians, from the pen of Eginhard. They thus became the "lazy kings" of images for schoolchildren until the 19th century (and beyond ...).

Invention of the telephone (1876)

Invention of the telephone (1876)

On February 14, 1876, the American Graham Bell filed the patent for the invention of the telephone. Seen as an improvement of the telegraph-turned-talking telegraph, this invention ushers in a new era, that of globalization. Distances are abolished, and time becomes universal.

Ephemeris of October 27

Ephemeris of October 27

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La Reynie, Louis XIV's police chief

La Reynie, Louis XIV's police chief

La Reynie was the first holder of the lieutenant general of the police, from 1667 to 1697. Until then, the security of Paris depended on four departments serving as the Police. Thanks to the disappearance of the criminal lieutenant and the civilian lieutenant, Colbert will be able to reform the Paris Police to form a single body, at the head of which Louis XIV installs Gabriel Nicolas de La Reynie, a man loyal to royalty. , patient, efficient and determined.

Ephemeris of November 2

Ephemeris of November 2

1962: President Kennedy announces the end of the Cuban Missile Crisis with the dismantling of the launch pads by the Soviets. 1956: Hungary denounces the Warsaw Pact and protests to the UN against Soviet intervention; in the Security Council, Moscow refuses the UN to take up the situation.

Marquis de La Fayette - Biography

Marquis de La Fayette - Biography

La Fayette was a French general and politician who distinguished himself in the American Revolutionary War and participated in the early days of the French Revolution. Only twenty years old, he embarked in 1777 on L & 39; Hermione to fight alongside the American colonists. Returning to France in 1779, he helped decide on French support for the insurgents.

Ninon de Lenclos, courtesan of the Grand Siècle

Ninon de Lenclos, courtesan of the Grand Siècle

French woman of letters renowned for her beauty, Ninon de Lenclos (1616-1706) represents the skeptical and libertine current which appeared under the reign of Louis XIV and will flourish in the Age of Enlightenment. "A beautiful woman who has all the qualities of an honest man is the most delicious thing in the world.

Ephemeris of October 14

Ephemeris of October 14

1944: Suicide of German Marshal Erwin Rommel. 1939: The British battleship & 34; Royal Oak & 34; is sunk at Scapa Flow, resulting in the deaths of 800 of its sailors. 1933: Germany withdraws from the conference on disarmament and the League of Nations. 1809: Napoleon, winner of the Fifth coalition at Wagram, forces the Austrians to sign the Peace of Vienna.

Europe and the world in 1492

Europe and the world in 1492

In 1492, Christopher Columbus succeeded, thanks to the support of the Spanish rulers, the first crossing of the Atlantic Ocean and (re) discovered America. He succeeds the Portuguese navigators who had reached the Indian Ocean and the East at this end of the 15th century. These European explorations led to a great opening up, a kind of first & 34; globalization & 34; which connects the four great civilizations (Chinese, European, Muslim and Hindu) of the time.

Charles Martel and the Battle of Poitiers (W. Blanc, C. Naudin)

Charles Martel and the Battle of Poitiers (W. Blanc, C. Naudin)

Since the 2000s, the figure of Charles Martel and the battle of Poitiers where in 732, he pushes back with his Frankish army the Arab-Berber troops of Abd al-Rahmân, have become an issue of memory and instrumentalisation of the past, especially on the part of the French and even European far right.

Ephemeris of October 13

Ephemeris of October 13

1946: The constitution of the Fourth Republic in France is ratified by referendum. 1943: Italy declares war on Germany, its former Axis ally. 1937: The Third Reich guarantees the inviolability of Belgium. 1923: Ankara becomes the new capital of Turkey. 1837: Capture of Constantine by the French.

Caricature in France, from the Middle Ages to the present day

Caricature in France, from the Middle Ages to the present day

In France, it was in the 18th century but especially from the Revolution that the art of caricature, this mode of expression with murderous graphics - although not always - will enrich the pages of the press then in full boom, and has been part of the political game ever since. The first food of the cartoon is observation.

Benito Mussolini - Biography

Benito Mussolini - Biography

Benito Mussolini was an Italian politician and dictator, founder and leader of the fascist party. In 1922, he organized the famous march of black shirts on Rome, where the king asked him to form a government. Having obtained full powers from parliament, he set up an authoritarian regime and took the title of & 34; Duce & 34 ;.

Great barbarian invasions and fall of the Roman Empire

Great barbarian invasions and fall of the Roman Empire

The Great Barbarian Invasions correspond to a vast migratory movement, which spanned Europe from the end of Antiquity to the beginning of the Middle Ages. As early as the 1st century, the Romans suffered the first incursions of peoples from outside the Empire, whom they called "barbarians". The borders of the Rhine gave way from 406, paving the way for several successive waves of invasions.

Berlin Wall, from construction to fall

Berlin Wall, from construction to fall

Built from 1961, the Berlin Wall which separated the German capital for 27 years is the most symbolic evocation of the Cold War, in a world now split in two. The fall of the Berlin Wall on the night of November 9 to 10, 1989 caused a wave of enthusiasm and hope in the world and especially in Germany, which can finally hope for the reunification expected since the end of World War II.

Ephemeris of October 24

Ephemeris of October 24

1940: Sadly famous handshake between Pétain and Hitler in Montoire, which opens the way for collaboration. 1929: New York stock market crash (Black Thursday) which causes an unprecedented financial and then banking crisis, and precipitates the United States , then quickly the main world powers, in the Great Depression of the 1930s.

Pericles, strategist and father of Athenian democracy

Pericles, strategist and father of Athenian democracy

Pericles (c. 495-429 BC) was an Athenian politician and strategist of ancient Greece, whose importance in the history of Athens was considered so paramount that it is often referred to as the century in which he lived "century of Pericles". Coming from a large aristocratic family, Pericles participated very young in the political life of the Athenian Republic.

Ephemeris of October 18

Ephemeris of October 18

1867: Alaska, which belonged to Russia, officially becomes possession of the United States. 1748: Treaty of Aachen: end of the War of the Austrian Succession. 1685: King Louis XIV signs the Edit of Fontainebleau, which revokes the Edit of Nantes signed in 1598 by his grandfather Henri IV, and causes an exodus of French Protestants.