Category: The collections

The Last Notes

Ephemeris of August 11

Ephemeris of August 11

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History of the CIA, from its inception to September 11

History of the CIA, from its inception to September 11

A formidable weapon during the Cold War, sometimes mythologized or decried, the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), a famous American intelligence agency, is one of the best known in history. Whether feared or admired, her role is often amplified by an overly “conspiratorial” view of history.

Ephemeris of August 6

Ephemeris of August 6

1870: War of 1870: during the Battle of Reichshoffen, the French cavalry heroically charges the Prussian army in the village of Frœschwiller-Wœrth in Alsace. 1806: The Holy Roman Empire is dissolved during the renunciation of François II of Habsburg to the imperial crown, under pressure from Napoleon I.

Battle of Cannes, Hannibal's last victory

Battle of Cannes, Hannibal's last victory

On August 2, 216 BC, the bloody battle of Cannes took place between Rome and Carthage as part of the Second Punic War. A terrible defeat for the numerically superior Roman army, this battle enshrined the Carthaginian general, Hannibal Barca, among the greatest military strategists, his tactics still being taught in some military schools.

Ephemeris of July 31

Ephemeris of July 31

1944: The aviator and writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, 44, disappears during a reconnaissance mission to the south of France. 1914: the leader of the French Socialist Party, Jean Jaurès, is assassinated by Raoul Villain at Café du Croissant, rue Montmartre, Paris. 1828: French Egyptologist Jean-François Champollion, 38, who has never set foot in the land of the pharaohs, realizes his dream by leaving as the head of a scientific expedition to Egypt.

Understanding the Paris Commune (Y. Barde)

Understanding the Paris Commune (Y. Barde)

The Paris Commune (March-May 1871) is very present in the political imagination of the left, but ultimately little known to the general public. It comes at a difficult time in French history, with the defeat of 1870 and the fall of the Empire, but it is also fundamental as such.

Ephemeris of July 27

Ephemeris of July 27

1953: End of the Korean War. An armistice is signed between the belligerents in Pan Mun Jom. 1890: Suffering from a crisis of dementia and consumed with anxiety, the Dutch painter Vincent Van Gogh takes his own life. 1830: July Revolution: the Parisian population s & 39; insurgency against Charles X.

Chronology of the Wars of Religion in France

Chronology of the Wars of Religion in France

Between 1562 and 1598, the kingdom of France was torn apart by incessant civil wars, punctuated by brief periods of peace, between Protestants and Catholics. Although there are traditionally eight Wars of Religion, these last more resemble one long and unique thirty-five year conflict.

Appeal of June 18, 1940: De Gaulle calls for resistance

Appeal of June 18, 1940: De Gaulle calls for resistance

June 18, 1940: From a BBC studio, an obscure brigadier general, Charles de Gaulle, urges the French to continue the fight. What will go down in history as the appeal of June 18 echoes that launched the day before by Marshal Pétain, the new President of the Council, who told the French with a "heavy heart" the need to "stop fighting ".

Ephemeris of July 18

Ephemeris of July 18

1975: The first major space cooperation between the United States and the USSR resulted in a historic handshake in space, with the junction of the Apollo and Soyuz capsules. 1947: The British, administrators of Palestine since the end of World War I, board the ship & 34; Exodus & 34; in the port of Haifa.

Ephemeris of July 10

Ephemeris of July 10

1943: British, Canadian and American armies land in Sicily. 1940: The Parliament assembled at the Grand-Casino de Vichy votes the end of the Third Republic, by 569 votes against 80 and 19 abstentions. All the powers go to the President of the Council, Marshal Philippe Pétain. 1898: Beginning of the Fachoda crisis, which opposes the English and French Sudan.

Battle of the Pyramids (July 21, 1798)

Battle of the Pyramids (July 21, 1798)

Won over the Mamluks of Egypt, the Battle of the Pyramids will leave to posterity one of Napoleon Bonaparte's most famous quotes: "From the top of these pyramids forty centuries of history contemplate you! »… In the footsteps of Caesar and Alexander, the young general launched the armies of the Republic on a crazy military and scientific adventure in the land of the Pharaohs, occupied by the legendary Mamelukes… July 21, 1798, at the gates of Cairo , their mythical cavalry, reputed to be the best in the world, is struck down by the infantry of the French expeditionary force.

July 14 ephemeris

July 14 ephemeris

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Potsdam Conference (July 17 - August 2, 1945)

Potsdam Conference (July 17 - August 2, 1945)

On July 17, 1945, Cecilienhof Palace hosted the Potsdam Conference, attended by the most powerful heads of state and government in an attempt to settle the future of Germany after World War II. Joseph Stalin and Winston Churchill, veterans of previous Allied Conferences, are once again present, as Harry Truman replaces Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who died on April 12.

Ephemeris of July 11

Ephemeris of July 11

1975: Chinese archaeologists announce the discovery of the gigantic tomb of the country's first emperor Qin Shihuangdi near Xian. It contains the statues of over 6,000 life-size terracotta soldiers and horses. 1916: General von Falkenhayn launches a final offensive to seize Verdun.

Catherine II, Empress of All the Russias

Catherine II, Empress of All the Russias

Catherine II of Russia, nicknamed Catherine La Grande, once said "I leave to posterity to judge impartially what I have done". During the longest reign in Russian history (thirty-four years), she managed to develop trade and industry, establish a system of educating young people, develop hospitals, found new cities, to constitute an important imperial library, to promote the arts and especially to stand up to all neighboring or distant invaders.

Mers el-Kebir (July 3, 1940)

Mers el-Kebir (July 3, 1940)

On July 3, 1940, the British navy attacked and destroyed a large part of the French fleet taking refuge in the harbor of Mers el-Kébir. After the French defeat of June 1940, English Prime Minister Winston Churchill feared that his former ally's fleet would fall into the hands of the German army.

July 6 ephemeris

July 6 ephemeris

1923: Creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). 1885: Louis Pasteur vaccines for the first time against rabies a 9-year-old Alsatian shepherd named Joseph Meister. 1809: After two days of fighting, the Austrians are beaten at Wagram, north-east of Vienna, by Napoleon I's troops.

Ephemeris of June 1

Ephemeris of June 1

1831: British explorers John Ross and James Clark Ross discover the Magnetic North Pole in northern Canada. The North Magnetic Pole, 2000 km from the Geographical Pole, was reached by a revolutionary steamer the Victory. 193: Septimius Severus becomes Roman Emperor.

Ephemeris of June 25

Ephemeris of June 25

1991: Slovenia and Croatia declare their independence by seceding from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. 1950: Korean War: the North Koreans cross the line of demarcation of the 38th parallel which separates their state, the communist regime, from South Korea, pro-Western regime.