Category: Various

The Last Notes

The Duchy of Burgundy in the Middle Ages

The Duchy of Burgundy in the Middle Ages

The history of the Duchy of Burgundy, resulting from the French royal domain, is characterized by a struggle against the monarchical power of the Capetians for more than four centuries. If the transjurane part of Burgundy (the Franche Comté) knows another destiny as territory of the Germanic Empire, the duchy completes its construction after centuries of conflicts and political and geographical breakdowns.

Ephemeris of August 21

Ephemeris of August 21

1959: Hawaii, Polynesian archipelago, becomes after a referendum the 50th state of the United States. 1911: The most famous painting in the world, the Mona Lisa painted by Leonardo da Vinci at the beginning of the 16th century, is stolen from the Louvre . 1815: While since the fall of Napoleon the royalists have exercised the White Terror, the election of deputies turns into a plebiscite of the Ultras, it & 39; s the & 34; untraceable chamber & 34 ;.

Ephemeris of September 7

Ephemeris of September 7

1940: Beginning of the Blitz: the Luftwaffe abandons military targets and begins its first intensive aerial bombardments on civilians by concentrating its attacks on London. 1822: The future Emperor Peter I proclaims the independence of Brazil. 1812: Russian Campaign: victorious at the battle of the Moskva, Napoleon will enter a Moscow emptied of its inhabitants and ravaged by fires.

Capitulation of Japan (September 2, 1945)

Capitulation of Japan (September 2, 1945)

The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9 ultimately lead to the surrender of Japan. The official surrender, signed on board the American battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay, on September 2, 1945, marks the end of World War II. Beginning on December 7, 1941 at Pearl Harbor, the War in the Pacific saw hundreds of thousands of fighters clash in the world's largest theater of operations, in both land and naval air warfare.

Ephemeris of September 8

Ephemeris of September 8

1951: 48 countries sign the Treaty of San Francisco on the status of post-war Japan. 1855: Crimean War. The Russian army of Sebastopol capitulates after the capture by General Mac-Mahon of the Malakoff tower. 1816: End of the & 34; White Terror & 34 ;. The & 34; Room not found & 34; which had been leading the & 34; counter-revolution & 34; is dissolved by Louis XVIII.

Munich Olympic Games and hostage-taking (1972)

Munich Olympic Games and hostage-taking (1972)

September 5, 1972, the Olympic Games in Munich are the scene of a dramatic hostage-taking. Eight Palestinian terrorists from the Black September group will attack the Israeli delegation. When the guns are finally silent, the next day, eleven athletes will have perished. Unprecedented drama, the Munich hostage-taking will subsequently lead security forces around the world to fundamentally review their anti-terrorism procedures.

Ephemeris of August 30

Ephemeris of August 30

1954: The French Parliament refuses to endorse the creation of a European Defense Community (CED). This vote of refusal is due to the opposition to the CED of the Gaullists and the Communists. 1914: The Russian armies until then in full offensive are crushed in East Prussia at Tannenberg by the German troops of General Hindenbug.

Ephemeris of August 26

Ephemeris of August 26

1789: The French National Constituent Assembly votes the adoption of a "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen". This defines the natural and imprescriptible rights of humanity. 1648: The people of Paris rise up against the regent Anne of Austria after the arrest of Councilor Broussel.

Ephemeris of August 18

Ephemeris of August 18

1966: Beginning of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: Thousands of & 34; Red Guards & 34 ;, mostly students, march by brandishing the & 34; Little Red Book & 34; by Mao Zedong. 1892: Signature of a Franco-Russian military agreement, which brings the two countries out of their diplomatic isolation.

Pompeii, history and virtual tour of the ruins

Pompeii, history and virtual tour of the ruins

The ancient site of Pompeii constitutes an exceptional archaeological testimony of Roman history. Numerous archaeological excavations have uncovered nearly three-quarters of the city which today constitutes a unique testimony to the life of a provincial Italian city of the 1st century AD.

Ephemeris of August 15

Ephemeris of August 15

1947: Great Britain grants independence to India and the future Pakistan. 1944: The allies, mainly French from the colonies, land in Provence. 1534: Basque Ignatius of Loyola founds the Jesuit order .778: The count of the march of Brittany Roland, ally of Charlemagne, dies during a surprise attack by the Vascons (Basques), in the col de Roncesvalles (Pyrenees).

Auguste, master of the world (Pierre Cosme)

Auguste, master of the world (Pierre Cosme)

In this year of the two thousandth of Augustus' death, exhibitions and publications are pouring in. Augustus as the first emperor of the Roman Empire caught the imagination. He was not, however, in the best position to reach this place. The Battle of Actium on September 2, 31 BC.

Ephemeris of August 9

Ephemeris of August 9

1945: Three days after the launch of the first American atomic bomb on Japan in Hiroshima, it is the city of Nagasaki which is affected. The & 34; Fat Man & 34; bomb explosion will kill 70,000. 1534: The French navigator Jacques Cartier reaches the mouth of the St. Lawrence.

The strategies of the Civil War

The strategies of the Civil War

When the Civil War begins, the question of strategy does not even arise for the belligerents, since almost everyone thinks that a great Napoleonic-style battle will end the conflict in just a few weeks. Once this certainty was dispelled by the first fighting in the summer of 1861, both North and South had to agree that a more elaborate strategy was needed regarding the future conduct of the war.

The tactics of the Civil War

The tactics of the Civil War

Page 2 sur 2Une arme sur le déclinUne charge de cavalerie traditionnelle est normalement menée au pas, les chevaux ne passant progressivement au trot, puis au galop, que dans les derniers hectomètres avant le contact avec l’ennemi. Il est en effet important de ménager les montures, dans la mesure où un régiment peut être amené à charger jusqu’à dix ou douze fois dans la même journée.

The astonishing history of the numbering of the kings of France

The astonishing history of the numbering of the kings of France

Everyone knows Louis XIII, Louis XIV or even Louis XV and many others before them. But why these numbers? Why would Louis XIV not have worn the number XV or XVI? Very interesting question answered by Michel-André Lévy in his recent work “Louis I, II, III ... XIV.

Indochina War (1946-1954)

Indochina War (1946-1954)

Of the conflicts that have involved France since 1945, the Indochina War is certainly the least well known. Started in the delicate context of reconstruction, it was often relegated to the background of the concerns of the French, before giving way to a much more mobilizing conflict: the Algerian war.

Ephemeris of August 7

Ephemeris of August 7

1942: War in the Pacific: the Americans land at Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. 1940: Churchill, thus opposing part of his entourage, recognizes the full legitimacy of General de Gaulle and the resistance movements. 1786: The Savoyards Paccard and Balmat make the first ascent of Mont-Blanc.

Ephemeris of August 2

Ephemeris of August 2

1945: The Potsdam conference ends by having sealed the fate of Germany: the latter is separated from Austria, loses part of its territory in the east to Poland and the USSR, and finally, it is divided into three occupation zones. 1939: Albert Einstein co-signs with physicists Leo Szilard, Edward Teller and Eugen Wigner, a letter to President Roosevelt explaining the risks that Nazi Germany would present if it held the country. atomic weapon.

Invention of the steam engine (1712)

Invention of the steam engine (1712)

The invention of the steam engine is the story of a long process of discovery that began in antiquity. Although not the original, it was a major contributor to the industrial revolution of the 19th century. It was in 1679 that the Frenchman Denis Papin designed a kind of Pressure Cooker to study the pressure of gases.